Prisoners serving sentences of Life Imprisonment and Preventive Detention form a distinct sub-set of the prisoner population. The following pages provide information about recent trends involving these offenders. As will become apparent, numbers of prisoners serving indeterminate sentences have been growing steadily for several decades.
It is hoped that this analysis will improve understanding of this sub-group, and potentially stimulate improvements in the management of such offenders, both while in prison, and after their eventual release.
The term “family violence” covers a broad range of violent and controlling behaviours suffered by persons with whom a perpetrator shares (or has shared) an intimate, family or family-like relationship . Family violence can be physical, sexual and/or psychological in nature, actual or threatened, and may involve fear, intimidation and emotional deprivation. Family violence also includes behaviours that depart from a reasonable standard of care for children or vulnerable persons .
This paper sets out to describe the sub-group of offenders managed by the Department who are sentenced for family violence offences.
In the Corrections context, offences most commonly associated with family violence include assaults and injuring, sexual assault, threats and intimidation, property damage, and breaches of orders. In a small number of cases family violence involves homicide offences (Murder, Manslaughter).
Analysis of family violence offending is complex because of the range of offences involved, and because available data do not always clearly convey whether an offence relates specifically to family violence. The data used for this analysis therefore comes from two sources; NZ Police data enables the linking of sentences to family violence offences, although this data is somewhat limited, spanning only the period January 2011 to December 2013; secondly, the Department’s own sentencing data includes certain codes that specify some offences as family violence-related.
Where definitive data is not available, data points have been estimated by calculating the rate of offenders starting family violence offences in 2011-2013 and extrapolating against the total number of unique offenders starting sentences each year. These have been depicted as dotted lines on graphs.
Secondly, it is common for offenders to be sentenced on a number of different offences; in some cases, the mix of offences includes family violence offences, but these offences may or may not be the most serious in the mix. In this report, the term “family violence aggregate sentence” is used to refer to a sentence where any (one or more) of the offences relate to family violence.
The Offender Population Report (formerly known as the Offender Volumes Report) presents information about the offender population managed by the Department and helps Corrections plan and develop policies relating to offender management and rehabilitation.
The report analyses offender volume patterns by age, gender, ethnicity, offence group and sentence type, and how these have changed over the last few decades.
The Offender Population Report replaces the biennial prison census that was conducted from 1987-2003.
Agency: NZ Police
Author: NZ Police
A series of regular research reports, including biannual and annual Tactical Options Research Reports that monitor tactical options deployment ie, handcuffs, empty hand tactics (physical force), OC spray (pepper spray), baton, TASER, dogs, and firearms.
Agency: Ministry of Justice
Author: Litmus Limited
The Ministry of Justice commissioned Litmus Limited to undertake formative and process evaluations and a cost-effectiveness analysis of the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment (AODT) Court being piloted in the Auckland and Waitakere District Courts. This document reports on the findings from the formative evaluation carried out in November 2013 after the AODT Court's first year of operation.
Agency: Ministry of Justice
Author: Ministry of Justice
The New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) is a face-to-face survey of almost 7000 randomly chosen people living in New Zealand who are aged 15 or over. The NZCASS has been carried out three times: 2014, 2009 and 2006.