Justice Sector Datalab

Research and evaluation collection

266 Results

Justice Sector Seriousness Score (2016 update): FAQs

Year: 2017

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Charles Sullivan, Ong Su-Wuen, Rory McRae

Details: https://www.justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/2016-FAQs-Seriousness-Scores2.pdf

Seriousness scores are a way of quantifying the relative seriousness of offences based on the sentences imposed for each offence. Users need to be aware that sentences are an imperfect proxy for seriousness because they take into account factors other than seriousness of the offence under consideration (eg, previous criminal history of the offender).
Uses for seriousness scores across the justice sector include:

-Helping to determine the ‘most serious offence’ for an offender or case
-Department of Corrections risk of reimprisonment tool RoC*RoI
-Monitoring effectiveness of interventions (eg, to check whether seriousness of youth re-offending reduces after interventions).

Investment brief: Restorative Justice

Year: 2016

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

Investment briefs summarise the evidence about how well the investment reduces crime, how much is spent on it, and whether there is scope to increase the level of investment. This brief shows that: there is strong evidence that restorative justice (RJ) is effective at reducing crime; the international evidence shows that RJ also provides benefits for some victims.

Investment brief: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Year: 2016

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

Investment briefs summarise the evidence about how well the investment reduces crime, how much is spent on it, and whether there is scope to increase the level of investment. This brief shows that: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the cornerstone of modern approaches to rehabilitate offenders; there is strong evidence that CBT is effective in reducing crime; in a different context, there is also strong evidence that CBT is effective at treating a wide range of mental health conditions.

Investment brief: Correctional Alcohol and Drug Treatment

Year: 2016

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

Investment briefs summarise the evidence about how well the investment reduces crime, how much is spent on it, and whether there is scope to increase the level of investment. This brief shows that: there is strong evidence that Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) treatment is effective in reducing crime; AOD treatment is most effective for offenders at high risk of reoffending; both psychological treatment and treatment using pharmaceuticals can be effective.

Family justice system: Evaluation of Family Dispute Resolution service and mandatory self-representation

Year: 2016

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

In March 2014 changes were made to how the family justice system (FJS) works. This report presents findings from an evaluation of the Family Dispute Resolution (FDR) service and mandatory self-representation one year after their implementation and includes information on improvements suggested by evaluation participants.

Police policy for external researchers' access to resources, data or privileged information

Year: 2016

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

The Policy for providing access to Police’s data, resources or privileged information, includes relevant legislation and protocols, the principles governing this access, and the requirement for external researchers to enter into a Police Research Agreement.

Comorbid substance use disorders and mental health disorders among New Zealand prisoners

Year: 2016

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and co-occurrence of mental health and substance use disorders among New Zealand prisoners.

Women's Experiences of Re-offending and Rehabilitation

Year: 2016

Agency: Corrections

This research focusses on the narratives of a group of women in new Zealand who had served sentences managed by the Department of Corrections, had received some form of rehabilitation, but nevertheless had re-offended. It sought to understand what women thought were important factors driving their re-offending, and how approaches to rehabilitative assistance could be improved to support desistance from crime.

Public Perceptions of Crime and the Criminal Justice System Survey 2016

Year: 2016

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Colmar Brunton

Details: https://justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/20161130-Final-PPS-report.pdf

This online survey took place in June-July 2016. 79% of respondents had interacted with the criminal justice system in the past two years. 405 of these said their overall experience was 'very positive' or 'quite positive'.

The survey includes public perceptions of local and national crime, causes of crime, and the criminal justice system.

Final Process Evaluation for the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Court Te Whare Whakapiki Wairua

Year: 2016

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Litmus Limited

The Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Court (AODT Court) is a specialist court that is intended to: reduce reoffending, AOD consumption and dependency, the use of imprisonment; positively impact on health and wellbeing; be cost-effective. The AODT Court began operating in November 2012.

The Ministry of Justice commissioned a formative evaluation, and interim and final process evaluations, to assess and inform the implementation of the AODT Court. This document reports on the findings from the final process evaluation, which assessed the actual operation of the AODT Court and its evolution against the intended design to inform the interpretation of programme outcomes.

New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2014

Year: 2015

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) is a face-to-face survey of almost 7000 randomly chosen people living in New Zealand who are aged 15 or over. The NZCASS has been carried out three times: 2014, 2009 and 2006.

Policing the First World War: slygrogging, sex and sedition

Year: 2015

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Elizabeth Plumridge, Rowan Carroll, New Zealand Police Museum

In the 1914-18 war, civilian society in New Zealand had to turn itself into a militarised society. The population of New Zealand at the beginning of the Great War was a little over one million, of that number 100,000 were eligible to serve. Persuading those eligible to join up did not happen ‘naturally’: it required coercion on a grand scale. Throughout WWI New Zealand Police were the invisible military machine.
The New Zealand Police Museum have researched and written seven essays that explain the role of New Zealand Police during WWI, Please feel free to read and share but don’t forget to reference the source.

Sex Offenders

Year: 2015

Agency: Corrections

Around 500 offenders are sentenced to imprisonment each year for sex offences, which is only about 7 percent of total receptions. However, their sentences tend to be significantly longer than the average. Consequently, they spend longer periods in prison, and thus comprise a significant proportion of the prison population, a proportion which is slowly but steadily increasing. For this reason, as well as the fact their crimes are very serious, and the risks to public safety of any subsequent re-offending, they are an important focus for rehabilitation as well as post-release management.

Pacific Offenders

Year: 2015

Agency: Corrections

Offenders of Pacific ethnicity make up 12 percent of all prisoners, and a slightly lower proportion of the population of offenders serving community sentences (10%). This report provides a statistical breakdown of trends in the Pacific offender population in recent years, in relation to gender, offence type, age and other key characteristics.

Young Offenders

Year: 2015

Agency: Corrections

While offenders under the age of 20 account for a small proportion of offenders serving sentences administered by Corrections, they are an important target group. Effective intervention with young offenders has the potential to have a substantial impact on re-offending, shortening what might otherwise be lengthy criminal trajectories.

Process Evaluation for the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Court Pilot, Te Whare Whakapiki Wairua: Interim Report

Year: 2015

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Litmus Limited

The Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment (AODT) Court is a pilot designed to supervise offenders whose offending is driven by their alcohol or other drug dependency.  The purpose of this evaluation was to describe how the AODTCs are working in practice after the first two years, including how processes have developed since the formative evaluation.

Public Perceptions of Crime and the Criminal Justice System Survey 2014

Year: 2014

Agency: Colmar Brunton

Author: Colmar Brunton

The Ministry of Justice commissioned Colmar Brunton to undertake a survey to investigate public perceptions about crime and the criminal justice system. This is the second iteration of this survey.

Court User Survey 2014: A Summary of Findings

Year: 2014

Agency: Colmar Brunton

Author: Colmar Brunton

The Ministry of Justice commissioned Colmar Brunton to conduct the survey, which is designed to measure user experience of, and satisfaction with, frontline services and facilities provided by the Ministry at court sites. The results are used to monitor and improve service delivery and facilities at courts.

Evaluation of the Defendant Centred Courtroom Pilot

Year: 2014

Author: Michelle Lennan and Sue Carswell

The Defendant Centred Courtroom (DCC) pilot trialed a reconfigured District Court courtroom where defendants who are not in custody sit or stand beside their counsel at the front of the court instead of standing in the dock. It is anticipated that placing the defendant at the centre of the courtroom will make the court process more understandable and accessible for defendants. It is expected that increasing understanding and engagement will culminate in a reduction in reoffending and an increase in sentence compliance among participating defendants.

Evaluation of the 2013/14 Safer Summer Road Safety Campaign

Year: 2014

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

The 10km/h speed enforcement threshold has been reduced to 4km/h during official holiday periods in New Zealand since Queen’s Birthday weekend 2010. The 2013/14 Safer Summer road safety campaign was the first time the speed enforcement threshold reduction had been extended beyond official holiday periods to a full two month period.

The campaign was carried out by Police from 1 December 2013 to 31 January 2014, and supported by the wider road safety sector. It involved a well-publicised reduced speed enforcement threshold, combined with intensified and highly visible speed enforcement.

The final report evaluates the effects of the campaign on speeding and crashes.

Offenders on Indeterminate Sentences

Year: 2014

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

Prisoners serving sentences of Life Imprisonment and Preventive Detention form a distinct sub-set of the prisoner population.  The following pages provide information about recent trends involving these offenders.  As will become apparent, numbers of prisoners serving indeterminate sentences have been growing steadily for several decades.

It is hoped that this analysis will improve understanding of this sub-group, and potentially stimulate improvements in the management of such offenders, both while in prison, and after their eventual release.

Family Violence Offenders

Year: 2014

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The term “family violence” covers a broad range of violent and controlling behaviours suffered by persons with whom a perpetrator shares (or has shared) an intimate, family or family-like relationship . Family violence can be physical, sexual and/or psychological in nature, actual or threatened, and may involve fear, intimidation and emotional deprivation. Family violence also includes behaviours that depart from a reasonable standard of care for children or vulnerable persons .

This paper sets out to describe the sub-group of offenders managed by the Department who are sentenced for family violence offences.

In the Corrections context, offences most commonly associated with family violence include assaults and injuring, sexual assault, threats and intimidation, property damage, and breaches of orders. In a small number of cases family violence involves homicide offences (Murder, Manslaughter).

Analysis of family violence offending is complex because of the range of offences involved, and because available data do not always clearly convey whether an offence relates specifically to family violence.  The data used for this analysis therefore comes from two sources; NZ Police data enables the linking of sentences to family violence offences, although this data is somewhat limited, spanning only the period January 2011 to December 2013; secondly, the Department’s own sentencing data includes certain codes that specify some offences as family violence-related.

Where definitive data is not available, data points have been estimated by calculating the rate of offenders starting family violence offences in 2011-2013 and extrapolating against the total number of unique offenders starting sentences each year.  These have been depicted as dotted lines on graphs.

Secondly, it is common for offenders to be sentenced on a number of different offences; in some cases, the mix of offences includes family violence offences, but these offences may or may not be the most serious in the mix. In this report, the term “family violence aggregate sentence” is used to refer to a sentence where any (one or more) of the offences relate to family violence.

Offender Population Report

Year: 2014

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The Offender Population Report (formerly known as the Offender Volumes Report) presents information about the offender population managed by the Department and helps Corrections plan and develop policies relating to offender management and rehabilitation.

The report analyses offender volume patterns by age, gender, ethnicity, offence group and sentence type, and how these have changed over the last few decades.

The Offender Population Report replaces the biennial prison census that was conducted from 1987-2003.

Tactical Options Research Reports

Year: 2014

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

A series of regular research reports, including biannual and annual Tactical Options Research Reports that monitor tactical options deployment ie, handcuffs, empty hand tactics (physical force), OC spray (pepper spray), baton, TASER, dogs, and firearms.

Formative Evalution for the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment (AODT) Court Pilot

Year: 2014

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Litmus Limited

The Ministry of Justice commissioned Litmus Limited to undertake formative and process evaluations and a cost-effectiveness analysis of the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment (AODT) Court being piloted in the Auckland and Waitakere District Courts. This document reports on the findings from the formative evaluation carried out in November 2013 after the AODT Court's first year of operation.

Public Perceptions of Crime and the Criminal Justice System Survey 2013

Year: 2013

Agency: Colmar Brunton

Author: Colmar Brunton

The Ministry of Justice commissioned Colmar Brunton to undertake a survey to investigate public perceptions about crime and the criminal justice system. The survey is intended to provide a robust and nuanced measure of public opinion on crime and the criminal justice system.

Justice Sector Seriousness Score (2012 revision): FAQs

Year: 2013

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Charles Sullivan and Ong Su-Wuen

Seriousness scores are a way of quantifying the relative seriousness of offences based on the sentences imposed for each offence. Users need to be aware that sentences are an imperfect proxy for seriousness because they take into account factors other than seriousness of the offence under consideration (eg, previous criminal history of the offender).
Uses for seriousness scores across the justice sector include:

-Helping to determine the ‘most serious offence’ for an offender or case
-Department of Corrections risk of reimprisonment tool RoC*RoI
-Monitoring effectiveness of interventions (eg, to check whether seriousness of youth re-offending reduces after interventions).

Christmas/New Year 2013/14 National Crash Risk

Year: 2013

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

This report aims to assess the traffic crash risk over the Christmas/New Year holiday period (henceforth referred to as the Christmas holiday period) 2013/14.

The analysis in this report compares data from previous Christmas holiday periods against year round results based on a daily average, using the full days around the holiday period. The date range is primarily from 2008/09 to 2012/13 financial years.

Mobility Trial Evaluation report

Year: 2013

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

The introduction of mobile devices and applications to frontline Police officers represents a transformational change for New Zealand Police. Providing frontline officers with innovative, state of the art, mobile access to important Police systems, is a key component of New Zealand Police’s drive towards improving organisational capability and operational efficiency.

The Mobility Trial was the first step in the Mobility Work stream – part of the Policing Excellence portfolio of projects arising from a November 2009 report, A Comprehensive Approach to Policing Excellence, accepted by the Cabinet Strategy Committee.

The final report presents the findings from the evaluation of the New Zealand Police Mobility Trial undertaken over eleven months from February to December 2012.

Formative Evaluation of the Mothers with Babies Units

Year: 2013

Agency: Corrections

Author: OTS ConsultingMomentum Research & Evaluation Limited

Housing very young children in a prison setting is a challenging and very unusual situation for Corrections staff. The Department sought an independent evaluation of its management of these special units, to provide assurance that everything possible was being done to ensure that the children were safe, that the mothers’ and the babies’ best interests were being protected, and that the children’s developmental needs were being met.

The report summarised published research on mother with baby programmes in prisons, which consistently shows that mother with baby units do support development of secure attachment in the child and increased parenting skills and maternal sensitivity in the mothers; research also provides some evidence that mothers with baby units can help reduce re-offending.

The overall conclusions were that the units have continued to develop, that positive advances have been made, and an underlying “best interests of the child” approach to decision-making was evident.Issues noted as requiring further attention included having a mix of both male and female staff at MWB units, having dedicated unit staff, the frequency of parenting programmes, instituting alternative caregiver assessments, and shortening wait times for approval to enter the units. Also recommended were further training of new staff, and improved national co-ordination of the units and the ways in which the mothers with babies policy is managed.

What works for Maori

Year: 2013

Agency: Corrections

Author: Katoa Ltd

The purpose of this review was to study evidence from five major domains of endeavour to identify a common set of interventions, initiatives, approaches and practices that increases understanding of what helps Maori succeed or improve outcomes in life. The investigation concentrated on reviewing studies that produced evidence that contributed to this understanding.

The domains of interest were economic development, education, health, whanau and wellness and the review covered a wide range of research evidence within each domain. The approach utilised a set of criteria to guide selection and analysis of literature and subjected the information and findings to a process of synthesis that was designed to identify the commonalities of success across the five domains. There were two stages of synthesis.

One was at the end of the analysis of each domain and the other was an overall synthesis that informed the discussion and conclusions section.

Youth Therapeutic Programmes

Year: 2013

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This review covers: trends in youth offending in New Zealand, developmental considerations, interventions and youth offending, characteristics of effective programmes, and specific responsivity (2012).

Tai Aroha 2012

Year: 2013

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

A formative evaluation of the 'Tai Aroha' residential community-based programme for high-risk offenders (2012).

Community Based Domestic Violence 2012

Year: 2013

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This literature and research review looked at the status of domestic violence interventions in Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, United States and New Zealand (2012).

Court User Survey 2012: A Summary of Findings

Year: 2012

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The Ministry of Justice commissioned Colmar Brunton to conduct the survey, which is designed to measure user experience of, and satisfaction with, frontline services and facilities provided by the Ministry at court sites.

Rangatahi Court: Evaluation of the Early Outcomes of Te Kooti Rangatahi

Year: 2012

Agency: Kaipuke Limited

Author: Kaipuke Limited

The purpose of this qualitative evaluation is to assess the implementation of Rangatahi Courts (Nga Kooti Rangatahi) and identify the early outcomes for those rangatahi who have had their Family Group Conference Plan monitored through Nga Kooti Rangatahi.

Court Lawyer Survey: A Summary of Findings

Year: 2012

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The research aimed to better understand lawyers’ experience of services and
facilities the Ministry of Justice provides, to help us improve our services and
facilities.

EVALUATION OF THE LEGAL AID REFORMS - Legal Aid Providers Survey (baseline) October November 2011: Summary of findings

Year: 2012

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The Ministry of Justice evaluated the implementation and impact of the reforms to the legal aid system that were progressively implemented since 2009. The evaluation was designed to better understand and provide regular feedback about implementation of the reforms, as well as monitoring achievement of the intended outcomes. The Legal Aid Providers survey was of legal aid lawyers in October

EVALUATION OF THE LEGAL AID REFORMS - Legal Aid Providers Survey (baseline) October November 2011: Full report

Year: 2012

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The Ministry of Justice evaluated the implementation and impact of the reforms to the legal aid system that were progressively implemented since 2009. The evaluation was designed to better understand and provide regular feedback about implementation of the reforms, as well as monitoring achievement of the intended outcomes. The Legal Aid Providers survey was of legal aid lawyers in October

EVALUATION OF THE LEGAL AID REFORMS - Public perceptions of legal aid June 2011

Year: 2012

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The Ministry of Justice evaluated the implementation and impact of the reforms to the legal aid system that were progressively implemented since 2009. The evaluation was designed to better understand and provide regular feedback about implementation of the reforms, as well as monitoring achievement of the intended outcomes. The Public Perceptions survey used a sample of the general public in June 2011.

Police Safety Orders Formative Evaluation

Year: 2012

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

Police safety orders (PSOs) were introduced by the Domestic Violence Amendment Act 2009 and provided the New Zealand Police with the power to issue and serve PSOs from 1 July 2010. This followed the introduction of similar orders in other jurisdictions, including Australia.

PSOs are a significant development in the law relating to family violence, premised on early intervention and protection for victims of family violence. PSOs enable the Police to provide immediate protection to victims of family violence.

In October 2010, the New Zealand Police commissioned the Crime and Justice Research Centre to carry out a formative evaluation to understand the implementation of PSOs and to inform the policy and practices surrounding their use.

Formative evaluation of Neighbourhood Policing Teams in Counties Manukau District

Year: 2012

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

This report presents a summary of findings from formative evaluation of Neighbourhood Policing Teams (NPTs) in Counties Manukau District. The focus of this formative evaluation has been on the development of the NPT approach in Counties Manukau District and the establishment of the Mangere South, Papakura East, Homai and Takanini NPTs.

It is intended that these findings be used to refine the role and function of the NPTs in Counties Manukau District and inform the design requirements and implementation of teams in other districts.

Prisoner double-bunking: Perceptions and impacts (2012)

Year: 2012

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

Throughout the last decade the Department of Corrections was faced with the need to accommodate significant increases in the number of prisoners, and to do so cost-effectively.  Amongst a number of strategies in response, extending the level of double bunking was pursued over a period spanning 2009-2011.

This report outlines the findings of two separate phases of research exploring double bunking in New Zealand prisons.  Of particular interest in the first phase was the perceptions of double bunking held by prisoners who had been housed in this manner, and staff who had worked in double bunked units.  The objective of this research was to identify issues which should be addressed before double bunking was further extended.  The research involved a series of interviews with prison managers, staff and prisoners, in twelve prison units. 

The second phase occurred during the period over which the level of double bunking was expanded.  This examined rates of incidents (such as prisoner assaults and incidents of disorder) for the purpose of determining whether, as double bunking expanded, the rates at which such events occurred were increasing.  A core objective of this phase was to clarify the extent to which double bunking, on the scale planned, remained consistent with the goals of safe, secure and humane containment of prisoners.

Community Sentence Patterns in New Zealand

Year: 2012

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

Community Sentence Patterns in New Zealand (published April 2012) investigates the reasons why there are relatively high volumes of offenders on community sentences in New Zealand compared with other jurisdictions. It compares criminal justice statistics from New Zealand to England/Wales, Australia, Scotland and the United States.

The report provides an update on community sentence patterns in New Zealand, and how these patterns have changed over the last three decades. It sheds light on why New Zealand’s community sentences rate is higher than similar countries. The report also provides an overview of some of the difficulties in making international comparisons, which are applicable to other areas of social research.

Benchmarking Study of Home Detention Programs in Australia and New Zealand

Year: 2012

Agency: Corrections

Author: M & P Henderson & Associates Pty Ltd

The purpose of this report is to inform jurisdictions about the range and nature of home detention (HD) programs operated by Australian and New Zealand corrective services through a comparison of the key features of these programs (process benchmarking) and, based on available comparable information about program outcomes, to analyse the factors underlying variations in performance across jurisdictions (performance benchmarking). The scope of the comparison is limited to front-end and back-end programs, excluding home detention for unsentenced offenders.

Confrontational Crime in New Zealand: Findings from the 2009 New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey

Year: 2011

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey(NZCASS) 2014.

Multiple Victimisation in New Zealand: Findings from the 2009 New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey

Year: 2011

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

Youth Court Research: Experiences and views of young people, their families and professionals

Year: 2011

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

This report presents the findings from the Youth Court research project. The research was an exploratory project aimed at providing insights into the experiences and views of young people going through the court, their families/whanau, and the experiences of Youth Court professionals. The research was conducted in the Waitakere, New Plymouth, Christchurch and Porirua Youth Courts. Including young people and families in the research allowed their experiences to be heard and added valuable firsthand insights into the variety of court users

Victim Satisfaction with Restorative Justice: A Summary of Findings

Year: 2011

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

This paper presents results from the Restorative Justice Victim Satisfaction Survey, in which 154 victims who had attended a restorative justice conference were interviewed by telephone. The survey measured the experience of, and satisfaction with, Ministry of Justice-funded restorative justice processes.

Family Court Review: Parenting Through Separation Participant Feedback

Year: 2011

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

Parenting Through Separation is a free voluntary information programme for parents and aims to help separating parents help their children. The Ministry of Justice funds providers across the country to deliver the programme. It usually takes place over two sessions of about two hours each and is delivered to groups of up to 16 parents. This paper presents data extracted from the closed questions on the registration and evaluation forms of participants.

Family Court Review: Case File Sample

Year: 2011

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The Ministry of Justice, in collaboration with the judiciary and court staff reviewed a sample of Care of Children Act 2004 (CoCA) and Propert (Relationships) Act 1976 (PRA) cases to help inform the Review of the Family Court. The cases selected were not intended to be representative of all cases involving applications made under these Acts but, instead, provide some insight into the nature of more complex cases coming before the Family Court. Care of Children Act cases were selected as they relate to the welfare and safety of children and this case type presently accounts for the majority of substantive applications. Property (Relationships) Act cases were selected as these cases often take the longest to resolve.

Family Violence Risk Assessment: Review of international research

Year: 2011

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

This review has been undertaken for New Zealand Police. Its purpose is to provide an overview of the international academic research and best practice literature on family violence risk assessment from about the last ten years, in order to inform improvements that the New Zealand Police may wish to make to its own family violence risk assessment processes.

The review therefore has a particular focus on the literature as it relates to family violence risk assessment by police organisations. It also focuses on risk assessment as it relates to predicting the reoccurrence of family violence, rather than the initial occurrence.

New Zealand Police Pre-Charge Warnings: Alternative Resolutions evaluation report

Year: 2011

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

This is the final evaluation report of the Pre-Charge Warning: Alternative Resolutions initiative. The initiative is part of the Policing Excellence work stream and responds to calls from New Zealand Police (Police), the Law Commission and judiciary to develop better alternatives to hold offenders to account for less serious offending without having to use the courts.

The findings in this report cover Police charge data from regional implementation in November 2009 to the end of May 2010. Data is also drawn from observations, interviews and surveys of police staff, offenders and victims.

About Time: Turning people away from a life of crime and reducing re-offending

Year: 2011

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

A report from the Department of Corrections to the Minister of Corrections introducing options for reducing the use of imprisonment under the headings: prevention, alternative sentencing, rehabilitation of established adult offenders. (2001)

Reconviction Rates of Sex Offenders: Five year follow-up study

Year: 2011

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This report summarises patterns of reconviction and re-imprisonment of exactly 1100 male sex offenders who were released from prison during the 36-month period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003.  The conviction dataset included any reconviction for offences that occurred within 60 months of an individual offender’s release date (up to 31 December 2008).

Risk assessment of recidivism of violent sexual female offenders

Year: 2011

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The Department of Corrections has recognised that women offenders have specific needs, prompting the development of policies on security classification of female offenders (Department of Corrections, 2002) and enhancing the effectiveness of offender management for women offenders (Department of Corrections, 2003a). In the latter framework, women child sex offenders and serious violent offenders are recognised as the first priority in targeting women for treatment programmes.

The New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2009: Technical Report

Year: 2010

Agency: National Research Bureau (NRB), Statistical Insights and Ministry of Justice

Author: Ken Sutton, James Reilly and Ministry of Justice

This report describes the design and methods of the 2009 New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS).

Understanding our Court Users: Court User Survey 2010

Year: 2010

Agency: Colmar Brunton

Author: Colmar Brunton

The Court User Survey is designed to measure, across a range of courts, user experience of, and satisfaction with, frontline services and facilities provided by the Ministry at the court sites included in the survey. The intention is to repeat this survey at specified intervals. Court users, excluding the judiciary, other professionals and Ministry of Justice staff, were interviewed at the eight largest District and combined courts in New Zealand, and at the Auckland High Court. The Ministry of Justice commissioned Colmar Brunton to conduct the 2010 Court User Survey.

The New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2009: Summary Booklet

Year: 2010

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

Summarises the results of the 2009 New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) which attempts to show how much crime occurs, who experiences it and how victims respond.

The New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2009: Main Findings Report

Year: 2010

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Ministry of Justice

The New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) provides information for researchers, policy makers and the public about the nature and extent of crime and victimisation in New Zealand. By talking to New Zealanders, the NZCASS attempts to show how much crime occurs, who experiences it and how victims respond. It also collects information about people

NZCASS in an International Context: Comparing the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey with other international surveys

Year: 2010

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Bronwyn Morrison, Melissa Smith and Lisa Gregg

The proliferation of national-level and international victimisation survey results, together with the growing tendency to export and import criminal justice policies on a global scale, has made the international comparison of crime and victimisation levels both expected and inevitable. It is therefore appropriate to reflect on how the results from the 2009 New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) compare with those from other countries. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to highlight some common high-level findings across the different surveys and reflect on the implications of these findings for crime prevention in New Zealand; second, to broadly compare the method and design of the NZCASS with other international surveys, highlighting key differences and the impact these have for comparing precise results across different countries.

Evaluation of the Implementation of Investigative Interviewing Training and Assessment (Level 1)

Year: 2010

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

The 2008 NZ Police Investigative Interviewing strategy aims to improve investigative interviewing, the quality of investigations and professionalism of staff. Staff are trained in the PEACE interviewing framework and a competency framework for the accreditation of staff has been implemented.

This report presents findings of a process evaluation of implementation of Level 1 investigative interviewing. The evaluation focused on how the training and accreditation processes are being implemented, monitoring and supervision of interviews and improvements that could be made to these processes. The extent of the use of the framework, access to resources and perceptions of progress towards intended outcomes of the Investigative Interviewing strategy use of PEACE were also examined.

The evaluation findings are based on analysis of data collected from a number of sources, including in-depth interviews, focus groups, surveys, human resources data and background documentation.

Evaluation of the Mental Health/Alcohol and Other Drug Watch-house Nurse Pilot Initiative

Year: 2010

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

The Watch-house Nurse (WHN) initiative began operating at the Christchurch Central and Counties Manukau Police station watch-houses on 1 July 2008 and 1 August 2008 respectively. The initiative is intended to run as a pilot project until 30 June 2010. The initiative places appropriately qualified nurses within these two watch-houses to assist the Police to better manage the risks of those in their custody who have mental health, alcohol or other drug (AOD) problems. Where appropriate, the nurses also make referrals for detainees to treatment providers.

This final evaluation report presents the findings about the WHN initiative during its first 18 months of operation. In doing so, it addresses the main objectives of the pilot, and intended outcomes of these objectives in turn.

Building Diversity: Understanding the Factors that Influence Maori to join the Police

Year: 2010

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Research Evaluation Consultancy Limited

A long established principle is that the police service ought to mirror the ethnic profile of the wider population in order to secure and maintain public confidence and police legitimacy. A key goal for New Zealand Police (NZP) is to achieve equity and diversity in their workforce. This research focuses on exploring factors that influence Maori to apply to and join Police.

The objectives of the research were to explore factors that influence Maori to apply and join NZ Police; explore the role of Police Maori recruitment initiatives, including Te Haerenga, in attracting Maori to join NZ Police; and to identify improvements to Police initiatives and processes for recruiting Maori.

 

Alcohol and other drug use in New Zealand drivers 2004 to 2009

Year: 2010

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Environmental Science and Research Ltd (ESR)

This study looks at the prevalence of drug use by drivers on New Zealand roads.  The driving populations considered are biased populations and the results that have been obtained can be considered only as indicators of possible drug use in the wider driving population.   

The driving populations considered in this study are:  Sample one:  Drivers killed as a result of a crash over the period of 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2009, and;  Sample two: Drivers not involved in crashes but who had an evidential blood sample taken for alcohol analysis. The blood samples were collected over a six month period.

Understanding Victimisation Risk: New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

Year: 2009

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: James Reilly and Pat Mayhew

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

Te Hurihanga Pilot: Evaluation Report

Year: 2009

Agency: Centre for Research, Evaluation and Social Assessment (CRESA)

Author: Julie Warren, with Lydia Fraser

This evaluation report provides the Ministry of Justice with findings from a two-year evaluation that began late June 2007 and was completed in July 2009. Te Hurihanga (The Turning Point) is a Ministry of Justice response to the problem of youth offending. It is a nine to eighteen month therapeutic programme for young males (aged 14 to 16 years at entry) who have appeared before the courts and who live within the Hamilton/Waikato region.

Self-Represented Litigants: An Exploratory Study of Litigants in Person in the New Zealand Criminal Summary and Family Jurisdictions

Year: 2009

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Melissa Smith, Esther Banbury and Su-Wuen Ong

The objectives were to study self-represented litigants in the family and criminal summary jurisdictions of district courts, in particular answering the following questions:

What are the key characteristics of self-represented litigants?
Why are they self-represented?
What effect does their lack of representation have on them, the other party, the court process, the judiciary, court staff, lawyers and others?
To what extent are information and resources accessed by self-represented litigants?

Exploring Victimisation in Sole-Parent Households: Findings from the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

Year: 2009

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Pat Mayhew and Ken Huang

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

Identifying and Responding to Bias in the Criminal Justice System: A Review of International and New Zealand Research

Year: 2009

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Bronwyn Morrison

The review summarises international and New Zealand research findings on bias against ethnic minority and indigenous peoples at key stages of the criminal justice system. The discretion points examined include: stop and search, arrest, charging, prosecution, conviction, sentencing (including decisions surrounding legal representation, plea, bail, mode of trial, and pre-sentence reports), custodial sentence management decisions within the prison system, and parole.

The review is based on research published during the last 40 years, and concentrates exclusively on literature from Australia, Canada, England and Wales, the United States, and New Zealand. It represents the most comprehensive review of the literature on race/ethnicity and the criminal justice system undertaken in New Zealand to date.

It focuses predominantly on the adult criminal justice system and examines decisions affecting offenders rather than victims. While it was originally intended that the review would focus on Māori and Pacific offenders, the paucity of information published about Pacific offenders meant that the majority of the New Zealand research included is based solely on Māori offenders.

The review found that while an extensive amount of international literature has investigated bias in the criminal justice system, comparatively little recent work has been published on this issue in New Zealand.

Despite the volume of international studies, straightforward answers about the nature and extent of bias operating against ethnic minority and indigenous people are seldom forthcoming within the literature.

Considerable disagreement exists within the literature about how to define the problem (including both its cause(s) and the language used to describe it), how to best measure it, and what should be done to address it.

Evaluation of 'Parenting Through Separation' Programme

Year: 2009

Agency: Roy McKenzie Centre for the Study of Families

Author: Jeremy Robertson and Jan Prior

The Ministry of Justice has funded the development and provision of the Parenting Through Separation (PTS) programme for separating parents in New Zealand. This report presents an evaluation of the PTS programme. Information was obtained from multiple informants, including programme providers and programme participants. This information was used to evaluate the programme in terms of its goals and its impact on parents.

Parenting Hearings Programme Pilot: Technical Report

Year: 2009

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Trish Knaggs and Anne Harland

Methodolgy report of Parenting Hearings Programme (PHP) pilot evaluation.

 

 

Parenting Hearings Programme Pilot: Evaluation report

Year: 2009

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Trish Knaggs and Anne Harland

The Parenting Hearings Programme (PHP) pilot is a new process initiated by the Principal Family Court Judge, Judge P Boshier. It commenced in six courts on 1 November 2006. The pilot is intended to provide an early response to urgent applications under the Care of Children Act 2004, and to cases not resolved through counselling or mediation. The evaluation included exploratory work at two PHP courts, followed by key informant interviews, a postal survey of parents, an Internet survey of Family Court lawyers involved in PHP, and discussions with a small number of key PHP stakeholders. Statistical analysis of Case Management System (CMS) data was also undertaken.

Analysis of the Māori experience: Findings from the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

Year: 2009

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Chris Cunningham, Sue Triggs and Sally Faisandier

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

Community Policing evaluations

Year: 2009

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

A refreshed national community policing initiative is being implemented by New Zealand Police in accordance with the NZ Police strategic goal of community reassurance. Over the years 2006/7 to 2008/9 250 new positions were allocated to community policing. NZ Police and Government needed to be informed of the effectiveness of this significant new investment and existing Community Policing initiatives were evaluated.

The purpose of the evaluations were to: provide an overview of the operation of the new initiatives; assess progress towards achieving the desired outcomes; outline the strengths and challenges of the initiatives; and determine ways the additional community policing positions contribute to the goals of the national community policing strategy.

What works now

Year: 2009

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

A substantial body of research evidence, known as the “What Works” literature, was influential in the design of the Department’s current sentence management framework.  This literature revolved around a number of key principles of correctional rehabilitation which, if adhered to in the design and delivery of services, would reliably lead to reduced rates of re-offending.  The principles of effective correctional rehabilitation can be divided into three major domains, namely risk, targets and “responsivity”.

The Manukau Family Violence Court: An Evaluation of the Family Violence Court Process

Year: 2008

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Trish Knaggs, Felicity Leahy, Nataliya Soboleva

This report describes the operation of the Manukau Family Violence Court, draws on qualitative and quantitative information to present findings and considers the extent to which this court is meeting its objectives. The report concludes by discussing the policy and practice implications of these findings, and makes suggestions for improving court processes. These evaluation findings along with those from the Waitakere  Family Violence Court will contribute to the ongoing refinement of court processes at existing and new  Family Violence Courts.

The Waitakere and Manukau Family Violence Courts: An evaluation summary

Year: 2008

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Trish Knaggs, Felicity Leahy, Nataliya Soboleva, Su-Wuen Ong

This document summarises major findings from recently completed reports on the Manukau and Waitakere Family Violence Courts. Information for these reports was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The findings, although subject to limitations, will help improve processes at both Family Violence Courts, and inform the development and implementation of additional Family Violence Courts.

Victims' Experiences and Needs: New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

Year: 2008

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Pat Mayhew and James Reilly

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

Responding Together: An Integrated Report Evaluating the Aims of the Waitakere Family Violence Court Protocols

Year: 2008

Agency: Massey University for the Ministry of Justice

Author: Mandy Morgan, Leigh Coombes, Erika Te Hiwi and Sarah McGray

This report draws together the findings from An Evaluation of the Waitakere Family Violence Court protocols: Preliminary report (Morgan, Coombes, & McGray, 2007), Study One, and Accounting for safety: A sample of women victims’ experiences of safety through the Waitakere Family Violence Court (Morgan, Coombes, Te Hiwi & McGray, 2007), Study Two. The integration of these studies was commissioned by the Ministry of Justice and is the fourth product within an ongoing collaborative programme of evaluation being conducted by the researchers and stakeholders in the Waitakere Family Violence Court (WFVC). The findings of Study One and Study Two assessed the extent to which the protocols that regulate the court’s processes are effective in achieving the court’s aims. This report has four objectives specified by the Ministry of Justice:

• Describe the operation of the Waitakere Family Violence Court

• Discuss the role of non-government organisations in the WFVC, assess the level of support they provide, and at what cost.

• Describe programmes provided by non-government organisations to both victims and offenders who have been involved with the WFVC.

• Describe the perceptions of some victims who have been involved with the WFVC, including degree to which they feel safer as a result of this involvement. 

The first three objectives are primarily met through the findings of Study One, and the fourth objective is primarily met by the findings of Study Two. In integrating the studies, this report also brings together findings that are relevant to meeting the objectives of this report, and therefore excludes some findings included in the original studies.

New Zealand Police research applications requirements

Year: 2008

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

People wanting to do research involving NZ Police are required to seek approval from the Research and Evaluation Steering Committee. The committee aims to ensure Police-related research or evaluation will have benefits for Police; be of good standard; meet our privacy obligations; and be feasible in relation to demands on Police time and resources. Researchers preparing information for assessment should use the proposal requirements within. The process will take at least one month, depending on the completeness of the information provided.

Barriers to Recruiting a Diverse Workforce: Literature reviews

Year: 2008

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Victoria University of Wellington

This report responds to a request by New Zealand Police to produce two literature reviews on the barriers to the recruitment of (i) women, and (ii) Maori, Pacific and ethnic groups. It has been prepared by the Crime and Justice Research Centre (CJRC) in collaboration with the Institute of Criminology.

The purpose of the literature reviews is to provide a fuller picture from the literature of recruitment issues both in New Zealand and internationally, and initiatives that have been implemented to address and/or mitigate these barriers. The reviews are to help New Zealand Police to identify good or innovative practice that might inform local approaches to recruitment.

In particular, NZ Police are interested in identifying: the most effective strategies to encourage people to join the Police; ways in which NZ Police can encourage growth in diversity without compromising standards; and the barriers to recruitment, and ways to remove them. 

Evaluation of the Rotorua Mental Health Nurse Initiative

Year: 2008

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

Since 2001 Police have had a mental health nurse working at the Rotorua Police Station to provide assessments and liaison between Police and Mental Health Services to facilitate the treatment of mentally ill detainees/arrestees/remanded. The Police Consult/Liaison Nurse is employed by the Lakes District Health Board (DHB) and comes under the umbrella of their Mental Health Service.

In August 2007, the Police, with the support of the Ministry of Health, commissioned an evaluation of the Rotorua model in order to inform the development of this model in two new pilot sites as part of the Effective Interventions Programme which aims to meet the mental health and AOD needs of offenders to improve their health status and reduce their offending.

This report evaluates the Police Consult/Liaison Nurse role and identifies what is working well and areas for improvement. Key learnings were identified to inform the development of a similar model in other Police watchhouses. The evaluation includes comparative analysis with Tauranga Police Station to see what difference the Police Consult/Liaison Nurse role has had on Police operations and what benefits can be attributed to this role for Police, Mental Health Services and detainees/arrestees.

Multi-Agency Liquor Enforcement study

Year: 2008

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Allen & Clarke Policy and Regulatory SpecialistsAxist Consulting New Zealand LimitedCentre for Social Health OutcomesResearch and Evaluation (SHORE) & Te Ropu Wh?riki, Massey University, Auckland

This study, commissioned with funding from the Cross Departmental Research Pool, sought to test the effectiveness of targeted multi-agency enforcement at reducing the harm caused by intoxication and other risky drinking behaviours in licensed premises.

The study used a quasi-experimental interrupted time series research design to assess the impact of heightened enforcement activity in licensed premises by regulatory and enforcement agencies.  The impact of heightened enforcement was compared to normal levels of enforcement activity.

The research was undertaken in three areas – Manukau East, the northern suburbs of Christchurch and Queenstown – and took place over a period 10 months, between March and December 2006.

EM Bail evaluation

Year: 2008

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Duncan Consulting Services Ltd

This report presents the findings of an evaluation of EM bail (electronic monitoring of defendants on pre-trial bail). The report was prepared by Duncan Consulting Services Ltd under contract to New Zealand Police.

The focus of the evaluation was EM bail processes operated by NZP. Key evaluative questions were: Are these processes operating as intended? Is NZP's supporting infrastructure for EM bail adequate? And how could EM bail processes operate more effectively? 

Reconviction patterns of released prisoners: A 48-months follow-up analysis

Year: 2008

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This report summarises patterns of reconviction and re-imprisonment amongst almost 5000 offenders who were released from prison during the 12 months period 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2003. The same cohort of offenders was the subject of a previous report in this series, which provided reconviction and re-imprisonment rates within a 36-months follow-up period 1. The current report provides similar data but now with a 48 months follow-up period: that is, figures represent any reconviction for an offence that occurred within 48 months of each individual offender’s release date (up to 31 March 2007) 2. The next report in the series (expected early in 2009) will give figures for a five-year follow-up.

Reconviction Patterns of offenders managed in the community: A 60-months follow-up analysis

Year: 2008

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This report is the second in a series of reports which summarise patterns of reconviction (over 5 years) amongst almost 35000 offenders who started community sentences in 2002/03.

Offender characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, age at start of sentence, age at first conviction, offence type and offenders’ previous criminal history are each examined with reference to reconviction and imprisonment.

The study also pays particular attention to reconviction outcomes for offenders on Home Detention orders.

Maori Offenders and Home Detention: Analysis of a One-Year Cohort

Year: 2008

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

A clear disparity has been identified between Maori and New Zealand European offenders with respect to both “leave to apply” for Home Detention, and approval of applications to the Parole Board.. A statistically-based analysis was undertaken to investigate possible reasons for this disparity. This indicated that Maori offenders potentially eligible for Home Detention tended to present with more extensive offending histories, including failure to comply with previous sentences and orders. Such characteristics largely (though not entirely) explained the lower rates with which Maori obtained access to Home Detention.

Over-representation of Maori in the criminal justice system

Year: 2008

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This report examines the over-representation of Maori in various points of the criminal justice system in order to answer the question of why the numbers of Maori are so high.

Reconviction patterns of released prisoners: A 60-months follow-up analysis

Year: 2008

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

 

 

The report highlights important differences in the re-offending risk of different sub-types of offenders. The relatively high rates of re-imprisonment for Maori and for young offenders are particularly concerning.

 

The report points to potentially fruitful areas of research to better understand why the identified trends occur, and what might be done to address risk factors which affect certain sub-groups.

 

Reconviction patterns of offenders managed in the community: A 48-months follow-up analysis

Year: 2008

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This report summarises patterns of reconviction and imprisonment, over a 48 months period, amongst almost 35,000 offenders who started community sentences (Supervision, Community Work) and orders (front-end Home Detention) during the 12 months period 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003.

The analysis reveals important differences of reconviction behaviour of different sub-groups of offenders who started community sentences in 2002/03.  Offender characteristics such as gender, age at start of sentence, ethnicity, offence type and offenders' previous criminal history are each examined with reference to reconviction and imprisonment.

The report is part of a sequence of reports, available on the Department of Corrections' website; earlier reports have presented reconviction and re-imprisonment amongst released prisoners with 36 and 48 months follow-up periods.

The Experience of E-crime: Findings from New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

Year: 2007

Author: Pat Mayhew and James Reilly

This report presents results from questions in the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2006 about what can be loosely grouped under a label of ‘electronic crime’ – e-crime.

New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006: Technical Report

Year: 2007

Agency: Statistical Insights and ACNielsen

Author: James Reilly and Charles Sullivan

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006: Key Findings Report

Year: 2007

Author: Pat Mayhew and James Reilly

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

Family Mediation: Evaluation of the Pilot

Year: 2007

Author: Helena Barwick and Alison Gray

This study was undertaken to enable the Ministry of Justice to identify any implementation issues with the family mediation pilot, assess the costs of this pilot, and assess the experiences of the various participants, including their satisfaction with the process. It considered matters such as referrals and attendance, immediate outcomes of mediation and returns to court by the parties.

Community Safety: Findings from the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

Year: 2007

Author: Pat Mayhew and James Reilly

This paper has been superseded by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey (NZCASS) 2014.

Evaluation of Youth Offending Teams in New Zealand

Year: 2007

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Anne Harland and Amanda Borich

The Youth Offending Strategy (2002) recommended the establishment of local Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) to provide leadership and co-ordinate youth justice service delivery at a local level to young offenders. After four years of operation it was considered timely that an evaluation of YOTs be carried out to help inform the future direction and support required for these teams. This report presents the findings of the evaluation.

Heretaunga Tiaki Tamariki Project Outcome Evaluation - 2007

Year: 2007

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

Heretaunga Tiaki Tamariki is a community youth programme aimed at reducing repeat offending of high-risk young people aged between 11 and 17 years, and is located in the Flaxmere Police Station. The report is the final evaluation of the HTT Project. It covers the period from programme inception on 10 February 2003 to 31 December 2005.

In 2002 Heretaunga Tiaki Tamariki project (HTT), based in Hastings was one of 14 community youth programmes selected nationally to reduce youth offending. The programme received $510,000 over three years. This outcome evaluation considers the effectiveness of HTT over three years, 2003-2005.

He Waka Tapu Violence and Abuse Intervention Programme and Caseworker Programme Outcome Evaluation - 2007

Year: 2007

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

He Waka Tapu Trust is a Maori health and social services organisation operating in the region of Ngāi Tahu ki autahi (Christchurch) in the South Island. He Waka Tapu was established to provide a Kaupapa Maori service for Maori men and their whānau experiencing domestic violence. This report is the final evaluation of the two Community Youth Programmes provided by He Waka Tapu Trust i.e. the Violence and Abuse Intervention Programme and the Wraparound Caseworker Programme.

In 2002 He Waka Tapu (HWT) Violence and Abuse Intervention programme and the HWT Wraparound programme, based in Christchurch, were two of 14 community youth programmes selected nationally to reduce youth offending. The programmes collectively received $298,500 over three years. This outcome evaluation considers the effectiveness of the two HWT programmes.

Evaluation of DARE to make a Choice

Year: 2007

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Victoria University of Wellington

The Crime and Justice Research Centre (CJRC) carried out a new evaluation of the DARE to make a Choice (Choice) drug education programme. The evaluation was based on a ‘best practice’ approach outlined in a CJRC scoping study commissioned by NZ Police in 2005. The premise was that if the best practice principles are being met, it is reasonable to suppose this provides good indirect information of Choice’s likely effectiveness in meeting its aims and objectives.

Evaluation of the Kia Kaha Anti-Bullying Programme for Students in Years 5-8

Year: 2007

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Massey University

This report describes an evaluation of the Kia Kaha Anti-bullying programme for students in years 5 – 8. Kia Kaha is an Anti-bullying programme developed by the New Zealand Police and originally released in 1992. The programme utilises a whole-school approach to improve the culture of schools and reduce bullying.

The programme is delivered by teachers and Police Education Officers (PEOs) through classroom curricula and activities with the students.

Reconviction Patterns of Released Prisoners: A 36-months Follow-up Analysis

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This report summarises patterns of reconviction amongst almost 5000 offenders who were released from prison over a twelve-month period in 2002/03. It reveals important differences in the post-release re-offending behaviour of different sub-groups of offenders. Offender characteristics such as age (at time of release), gender, ethnicity, offence type, length of the prison sentence, and risk level, are each examined with reference to reconviction.

Inmate Family Relocation Study

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Ministry of Justice

A study to establish whether family members of inmates have relocated to the prison region as a result of the imprisonment, and to determine whether those who move do so permanently or leave after the inmate is released.

Storm Warning

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This report develops statistical models for predicting violent reconviction. Statistical models are necessary because:
♦ Departmental staff, psychologists and Districts Prison Boards make predictions about an offenders dangerousness when deciding about priority for intervention or release conditions for parole;
♦ research shows that human judgements are less accurate than those based on statistical scales; and
♦ overseas prediction devices have not been validated on New Zealand offenders.

When the Bough Breaks

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The aim of this literature review was to determine which types of treatment are effective in reducing recidivism among young offenders. Young offenders are defined as that proportion of the New Zealand Department of Corrections offender population aged 17-20 years. The review focused on young offenders because they are widely acknowledged as being unresponsive to treatment.

The review included studies of treatment that had some effect on recidivism or had some other notable characteristic. Because there have been few well-controlled evaluations of treatment programmes for young offenders in New Zealand, most of the material refers to overseas programmes.

And there was light - Evaluating the Kia Marama Treatment Programme for NZ sex offenders against children

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

Kia Marama is the first New Zealand treatment programme for those imprisoned for sexual offences against children. It has run for seven years and its first graduates have lived for up to six years in the community. The time is right for evaluation of the programme’s results, and that is the aim of this report.
• The Kia Marama programme aims to prevent relapses by teaching offenders their offending is the result of linked steps of thought and behaviour. It offers skills and strategies to break these links, and opportunities for change right from initial assessment, through treatment, to post release.
• Two hundred and thirty eight men have been released from prison as graduates of Kia Marama’s first three years. A control group similar to the Kia Marama offenders was selected from all sex offenders against children convicted between 1983 and 1987. Comparison of these two groups enables us to assess the impact of the Kia Marama treatment programme.
• A more detailed version of this report may be requested from the authors at the Department of Corrections.

The Driving Offender Treatment Scale

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The Driving Offender Treatment (DOT) scale was developed to assess change in beliefs and attitudes that support further traffic offending. Currently, lengthy interviews are used to obtain this information. A standardised scale would collect this information more consistently and in a shorter period of time.

Risk of Reconviction

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

Statistical models which predict four types of re-offending.

National Study of Psychiatric Morbidity in NZ Prisons

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice

An investigation into the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among New Zealand inmates.

Prison Youth Vulnerability Scale

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The Prison Youth Vulnerability Scale (PYVS) is a rating scale for the assessment of vulnerability in imprisoned male youth aged from 17 - 19 years. It was developed to determine which of the youth sentenced or remanded to prison required placement in specialist youth units.

Best use of Psychological Service treatment resources

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The Psychological Service would contribute most to the Department of Corrections’ aim of reducing re-offending by concentrating treatment resources on offenders likely to be re-convicted. This report considers various traditional ways of deciding how treatment resources should be used, including the methods of authority, population numbers and demand, which are no longer useful, as well as allocation according to special needs, which is still used in some overseas jurisdictions.

A review of what is known about prevalence of reconviction suggests that between a quarter and a third of offenders are frequently reconvicted, and for serious offences. Since these offenders are committing a high proportion of all crime, changing their behaviour is likely to impact significantly on overall reoffending.

Criminogenic Needs Inventory (CNI)

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The Criminogenic Needs Inventory (CNI) has been developed to complement the Risk of reconviction (RoC) models by identifying why offenders are at risk. Specifically, it addresses the shortcomings of existing needs risk instruments such as the Level of Service Inventory.

Census of Prison Inmates and Home Detainees

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

The census provides a snapshot of the inmate population, which assists the Department in the analysis of how best to respond to offenders' needs and reduce re-offending.

A census of prison inmates has been carried out biennially in November since 1987. The Department of Justice administered the census until 1993, and the Ministry of Justice until 1997. The Department of Corrections took over this responsibility in 1999. The current census provides statistical data on inmates within the prison system as at 20 November 2003.

Child Sex Offender Treatment

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Auckland University of Technology

A recent study of New Zealand community-based programmes for men who sexually offend against children has shown that these programmes are performing well. 

The programmes are run by Auckland-based SAFE Network Inc, STOP Wellington Inc and STOP Trust Christchurch.  The research, carried out by Dr Ian Lambie and Dr Malcolm Stewart of Auckland University, was commissioned by the Department as part of its research and evaluation programme.

Te Whakakotahitanga - An Evaluation of the Te Piriti Special Treatment Programme

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This study evaluated, in an exploratory fashion, the cultural processes incorporated into the Te Piriti Special Treatment Unit for offenders imprisoned for sexual offences against children. The Te Piriti programme has been in operation for over eight years employing the core cognitive behavioural/social learning theory components utilised in its sister programme Kia Märama in the South Island, as well as processes that are culturally appropriate for Maori. The programme endeavours to implement tikanga Maori within the wider unit and prison environment. However, it needs to be acknowledged that there has been little integration of tikanga Maori processes into the therapy room.

A critical component of this study was the incorporation of the Framework for Reducing Maori Offending (FReMO) concept into the research process. This was necessary to appropriately and effectively evaluate the cultural processes that define the treatment approach provided at Te Piriti. While evaluative aspects such as recidivism and offence related difficulties were examined, the principle focus was on what was different for Maori men convicted of sexual offences against children and whether they benefited from the tikanga focus in the unit.

For many, the concepts within FReMO seem vague and there appears to be little evidence of benefit in the application of FReMO. In our view this project demonstrates that, when applied in a practical fashion, the FReMO process adds value. FReMO is “worth the journey”.

The Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This aim of this paper is to review the recent history and examine the present state of New Zealand correctional interventions. The focus is specifically on those interventions, programmes, or treatments, which have the goal of reducing re-offending. Beginning in the ‘nothing works’ era of the 1970’s, this paper reviews the international development of effective correctional interventions, and summarises the evaluation of these programmes in terms of published meta-analyses. The development, implementation and evaluation of a number of New Zealand treatment programmes are then discussed. Recidivism outcome measures from these New Zealand programmes are consistent with international benchmarks in terms of their ability to reduce re-offending. There is also a growing body of evidence that the effectiveness of these programmes can be further enhanced through particular attention to established principles of programme best practice, including providing culturally relevant and appropriate interventions to Maori offenders. A number of suggestions for further increasing the effectiveness of correctional programming are made.

New Zealand high-risk offenders

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This exploratory study into who high risk offenders actually are, was an attempt to gain more information about offenders who are predicted to be at high risk of serious reoffending. While efforts to address criminogenic factors typically follow the risk/needs/responsivity principles established by Canadian researchers, little information outside of criminal history information and broad demographic details exists on what appears to be a diverse group of offenders. The very offender’s that are the primary management and treatment targets for the Corrections department, in reducing reoffending.

The Utility of the Psychopathy Checklist - Screening Version for Predicting Serious Violent Recidivism in a New Zealand Offender Sample

Year: 2007

Agency: Corrections

Author: University of Waikato

Psychopathy has been identified in a large number of overseas studies as a significant risk factor for general reoffending and in particular for violent reoffending. This study set out to evaluate the ability of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version to predict criminal reoffending by New Zealand offenders and found a high level of predictive accuracy in predicting serious reoffending. Evidence was also found of a strong relation between psychopathy and speed of violent reoffending.

Reducing Residential Burglary: What can Police do?

Year: 2006

Agency: Ministry of Justice and New Zealand Police

Author: Ministry of Justice and New Zealand Police

The Ministry of Justice, in partnership with the New Zealand Police, has conducted research from 2002 to 2004 on the effectiveness of Police practice in reducing residential burglary. This report contains ideas for good practice that have been drawn from case studies carried out in four Police areas and from a review of the international literature. They outline practices that have worked in specific contexts and times, and are intended as a source of good ideas rather than a prescriptive list.

Public Perceptions of the New Zealand Court System and Processes

Year: 2006

Agency: AC Nielsen

Author: AC Nielsen

This research investigates the perceptions New Zealanders hold of our court system and processes, and compares any changes since the previous measures in March 1999, February 2000, February 2001, February 2002, March 2003, March 2004, and March 2005.

Christchurch Youth Drug Court Pilot: One year follow-up study

Year: 2006

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Wendy Searle and Philip Spier

This study is a follow-up assessment of the thirty young people who entered the Youth Drug Court (YDC) in the first year of the Court's operation. The study examines patterns of offending by these young people in the twelve months after they left the YDC. It combines this reoffending analysis with a small number of interviews with young people and their family/whanau to gain insight into these young people

Family violence and the pro-arrest policy: a literature review

Year: 2006

Author: Sue Carswell

The main purposes of this review are to examine the evidence about pro-arrest policies and to identify good practice by criminal justice agencies in response to family violence. The historical development and implementation of the family violence policy (which includes provisions relating to pro-arrest) in New Zealand is also described.

Ethnic Community Perceptions of New Zealand Police

Year: 2006

Agency: NZ Police

Author: University of Waikato

In 2005 the New Zealand Police commissioned this research project to explore the perceptions of police held by members of various ethnic communities and to provide information on the current crime and safety issues that ethnic communities face.

This research project involved exploring the perceptions of eight ethnic communities including Chinese, Indian, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Somali and Middle Eastern. Data for this qualitative project was collected through face to face interviews and focus group discussions conducted in Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington and Christchurch.

Ethnic community perceptions of New Zealand Police have been analysed through various themes that emerged during data collection, including: contact with police, attitudes towards police staff, perception of police services, language barriers, home country experiences, cultural ideas and knowledge, and the impact of the media.

The Wanganui Community-Managed Restorative Justice Programme: An Evaluation

Year: 2005

Agency: Crime and Justice Research Centre Victoria University of Wellington and Ministry of Justice

Author: Judy Paulin, Venezia Kingi and Barb Lash

This evaluation analysed the Wanganui Community-Managed Restorative Justice Programme. It explored the degree to which the project obectives were being achieved, inlcuding in relation to reoffending/re-conviction. The evaluation found that there was a low completion rate of restorative contract elements and that the programme had no statistically significant bearing on recidivism/reconviction rates.

The Sex Industry in New Zealand: A Literature Review

Year: 2005

Author: Jan Jordan

This literature review provides an assessment of the state of the sex industry in New Zealand in the years leading up to the passage of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003. It also examines overseas models of prostitution law reform and associated evaluations.

The Rotorua Second Chance Community-Managed Restorative Justice Programme: An Evaluation

Year: 2005

Agency: Crime and Justice Research Centre Victoria University of Wellington, Te Mauri Te Kore Ltd and Ministry of Justice

Author: Judy Paulin, Venezia Kingi, Tautari Huirama and Barb Lash

This report describes results from the evaluation of the Rotorua Second Chance Community-Managed Restorative Justce Programme. The Second Chance programme is founded on tikanga-based principles and has a focus on meeting the needs of Maori victims and offenders. The evaluation found that the programme was achieving most of its objectives in relation to victim satisfaction and criminal justice system professionals buy-in. However, no statistically significant reduction in reconviction rates was found for participating defendants.

Young People and Alcohol: Some Statistics to 2003 and 2004 on Possible Effects of Lowering the Purchase Age

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Barb Lash

The Sale of Liquor Amendment Act 1999 introduced a number of major changes that came into effect on 1 December 1999 concerning the minimum age that people may legally purchase and drink alcohol. Firstly, the legal minimum purchase age was lowered from 20 years to 18 years with one exception. Secondly, some offences involving minors became infringement offences where the person may either be prosecuted through the court system, or an infringement notice may be issued. This report presents some statistics on the possible effects of the Sale of Liquor Amendment Act 1999, and focuses on the lowering of the purchase age.

Evaluation of the Criminal List Pilot - Wellington District Court

Year: 2005

Author: Helena Barwick, Alison Gray, Garth Baker and Tau Huirama

The Department for Courts, now the Ministry of Justice, agreed to pilot a new approach to the operation of the criminal list at the Wellington District Court. The pilot began on 9 February 2004. The aims of the alternative approach are to:

- improve defendants understanding of what is happening in the list court process
- reduce the amount of waiting time and visits to court for defendants and others by ensuring that matters are dealt with minimal delay and credible appointment times are given for subsequent appearances
- ensure that administrative matters are dealt with prior to the defendant appearing before a judge. Administrative matters include determining whether the defendant has had legal advice, is ready to plead, has a pre-sentence report where appropriate, has an interpreter if required and that any mental health issues have been addressed.

The evaluation found that the objectives of the new system were substantially achieved.

The Nature and Extent of the Sex Industry in New Zealand: An Estimation

Year: 2005

Author: Prostitution Law Review Committee

This report presents a research effort to assess the size of the sex industry in New Zealand. It does so acknowledging that any attempt to establish the size of the sex industry must be viewed with caution. It is an industry where much of its activity has been 'hidden' and the non-regulated and fluid nature of the industry means that any estimate will simply be an indication of actual numbers. In addition, limitations in the accuracy of data also mean that the findings in this report cannot be taken to be an accurate assessment of the size of the sex industry in New Zealand. However they are useful in providing an indication of the approximate numbers of those in the industry. This report is divided into two distinct sections. The first is a telephone survey of the NZ Police Districts and Areas. The survey involved canvassing specific police staff in a position to offer information and insight on the sex industry in their area. The second section of the report is based upon an audit undertaken by the New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective (NZPC) of the numbers of advertisements for commercial sexual services in Wellington and Auckland.

New Zealand Court-Referred Restorative Justice Pilot: Evaluation

Year: 2005

Agency: Crime and Justice Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington

Author: Crime and Justice Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington and Sue Triggs

The findings of this evaluation have shown that court-referred restorative justice conferences have the potential to increase victims' involvement in dealing with offending, though not all victims are willing or able to participate in such processes. Victims were mainly satisfied with conference agreements, and they had an improved understanding of why the offence occurred and its likelihood of recurrence. It has also shown that court-referred restorative justice conferences had the potential to increase offenders' involvement in dealing with their offending. Fewer conferenced offenders were sentenced to imprisonment. In addition, it seems that there was an impact on reoffending when compared with matched offenders dealt with solely in the criminal courts. Thus, there are many reasons to feel encouraged. Overall, the pilot indicates that for some victims court-referred restorative justice conferences can more than adequately respond to the human and emotional costs of offending.

Evaluation of the Court-Referred Restorative Justice Pilot: Technical Report

Year: 2005

Agency: Crime and Justice Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington

Author: Crime and Justice Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington and Sue Triggs

This Report describes the objectives of the court-referred restorative justice pilot evaluation and the methodology used. It also describes the size and characteristics of the various samples and the reconviction analysis. The evaluation covered all referrals for court-referred restorative justice conferences made between 4 February 2002 and 3 February 2003 by judges in the four pilot courts (Auckland, Dunedin, Hamilton and Waitakere)[1] for pilot 'eligible' offences.

Evaluation of the Court-Referred Restorative Justice Pilot: Case Studies

Year: 2005

Agency: Crime and Justice Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington

Author: Crime and Justice Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington

Eighteen court-referred restorative justice conferences – 10 from Auckland and Waitakere and four from both Dunedin and Hamilton – were identified as potential case studies. In these, all participants and both facilitators were contacted for their views about the court-referred restorative justice conference. The conferences were chosen to reflect cultural sensitivity, the involvement of professionals, healing and reconciliation. They include conferences with offenders who had committed very serious as well as less serious offences; with a number of victims present as well as victims on their own; with a number of offenders present as well as offenders on their own; with recidivist offenders as well as first time offenders; with offenders and victims of different ethnicities as well as the same ethnicity; and with both male and female offenders and victims. Extracts from these case studies are referred to in the Report to demonstrate points being made. All names used in the case studies and other identifying features have been changed.

Young People and Infringement Fines: A Qualitative Study

Year: 2005

Agency: Litmus Limited

Author: Litmus Limited

The objectives of the study were to understand the circumstances that lead young people to have multiple infringement fines; the nature of their fines, their attitudes and responses to their fines and the actions and strategies they adopt in managing their fines. It also examines the impact fines have on their lives both in the short and long term, and identifies future improvements to the 'system'. The research was based on in-depth interviews with young people who have multiple infringement fines. Family members were also interviewed.

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary, Report 1: Surveys of Household Burglary Part One (2002): Four Police Areas and National Data Compared

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Triggs

This report presents information on residential burglary victimisation, crime prevention and crime perceptions from a survey of 500 households in each of four Police Areas in 2002 (Burglary Survey). The Burglary Survey was part of a wider evaluation of Police practice in reducing burglary.

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary. Report 2: Surveys of Household Burglary Part two: Four Police Areas compared between 2002 and 2004

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Triggs

This report compares the results of the 2002 and 2004 Household Surveys on Burglary as part of a three-year evaluation examining the effectiveness of Police practice in relation to burglary. The surveys collected information on residential burglary victimisation, crime prevention and crime perceptions from 500 households in each of four Police Areas.

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary: Report 9: Burglary Offenders

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Garth Baker and Alison Gray

The Ministry of Justice, in partnership with the New Zealand Police, conducted research over three years (2002-2004) on Police practice in reducing burglary. This report is one of a series of studies examining aspects of burglary initiatives undertaken in four Police Areas-Lower Hutt, Manurewa, Rotorua and Sydenham. It focuses on the experiences of burglary offenders and their awareness of Police initiatives in each of the selected Police Areas.

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary: Report 10. Overview: Research On the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Alison Chetwin

The Ministry of Justice, in partnership with the New

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary: Report 6: Case Study of the Lower Hutt Police Area

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Alison Chetwin and Helena Barwick

The Ministry of Justice, in partnership with the New Zealand Police, conducted research over three years (2002

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary: Report 8: Victims of Burglary

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Garth Baker and Alison Gray

This report focuses on the experiences of victims of burglary and their awareness of Police initiatives in the selected Police Areas. It is part of research conducted by the Ministry of Justice in partnership with the New Zealand Police from 2002 to 2004 on the effectiveness of Police practice in reducing residential burglary.

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary. Report 4: Case Study of the Manurewa Police Area

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Karen Johns

The Ministry of Justice, in partnership with the New Zealand Police, conducted research over three years (2002-2004) on the effectiveness of Police practice in reducing residential burglary. This case study report is the final report examining burglary initiatives undertaken in the Manurewa Police Area. Three other Police Areas in New Zealand are also part of the project-Sydenham, Rotorua and Lower Hutt.

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary. Report 5: Case Study of the Rotorua Police Area

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Tanya Segessenmann and Karen Johns

The Ministry of Justice, in partnership with the New Zealand Police, conducted research over three years (2002

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary. Report 3: Literature Review: Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sally Harvey

This literature review summarises the findings of international studies of what works in police practice to reduce residential burglary, drawing largely on the outcomes of research in the UK, the US and Australia. Residential burglary is one of the most common crimes, of great concern to the general public as reflected in crime victim surveys, and regarded as a major problem by police forces studied in the literature. Internationally there has been an increasing adoption of proactive policing with considerable research effort aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of crime prevention approaches. As part of this evaluative effort, the question 'what works?' has been applied to initiatives to reduce residential burglary. International research has established: the increased frequency of burglary in particular locations ('hot' spots); the increased risk of burglary for certain types of households (for example, those in rented accommodation, low-income households, or those who have recently been burgled-'hot' victims); the targeting of particular types of items ('hot' property); the high rates of property offending by a small group of prolific burglars ('hot' offenders). These findings provide the basis for targeted burglary reduction strategies in an approach known as situational crime prevention. This involves analysing crime problems with a view to reducing opportunities for offending through location-focused, victim-focused, property-focused or offender-focused interventions. The literature contains strong evidence of the effectiveness of burglary reduction strategies targeting 'hot' locations, 'hot' victims, and 'hot' offenders and supports initiatives targeting 'hot' property.

New Zealand Court-Referred Restorative Justice Pilot: Two year follow-up of reoffending

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Triggs

The main focus of this report is reoffending by offenders who attended a court-referred restiorative justice conference (the conferenced group). Reoffending, as measured by the reconviction rate, was assessed throughout the two year follow-up period (using survival analysis) and at the end of the one year and two year follow-up periods. The seriousness of reoffending and the subsequent imprisonment rate were also examined. The results for the conferenced group were compared with their predicted reconviction rates, which were derived from a logistic regression model. The results for the conferenced group were also compared with the results for ten matched comparison groups, selected from eligible offenders who were not referred to the pilot.

Research on the Effectiveness of Police Practice in Reducing Residential Burglary. Report 7: Case Study of the Sydenham Police Area

Year: 2005

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Carswell and Karen Johns

The Ministry of Justice, in partnership with the New Zealand Police, has conducted research over three years (2002

The Impact of Enforcement on Intoxication and Alcohol Related Harm

Year: 2005

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Geneye Research Ltd

The enforcement of liquor licensing laws by police and regulatory officials is intended to keep drinking environments safe, contribute to the reduction of liquor abuse, prevent excessive consumption of alcohol, and prevent the sale of alcohol to minors.

In Wellington, the enforcement of licensing laws involves regular visits to licensed premises by police and regulatory officials. The present study sought to test the effectiveness of these visits to licensed premises, by using an interrupted time series quasi-experimental approach.

Police formed a specialist Liquor Policing Unit (LPU) of six staff to achieve the heightened levels of enforcement. The impact of these interventions was compared to the impact of “normal” enforcement activity during the month preceding the first intervention, the intervening two months between interventions and during the month following the second intervention.

Perceptions of Public Safety in the Auckland CBD

Year: 2005

Agency: NZ Police

Author: AUT University

Earlier this year, the Institute of Public Policy at AUT University carried out a customer satisfaction survey for the Auckland City District Police. One of the aims of the survey was to examine perceptions of public safety in the Auckland city's central business district (CBD). In particular the survey investigated (1) public use of the CBD; (2) peoples perceptions of public safety within the CBD; and (3) whether peoples views on safety within that area had changed over the last five years.

In this article, Casey and Crothers firstly review the research which has been undertaken on behalf of Auckland City and which has addressed the issue of public safety in the CBD. They also examine the strategies council has developed which may have a bearing on the issue of CBD safety.

The authors then discuss the findings of the Auckland City District Police customer satisfaction survey 2005 which canvassed the usage and perceptions of safety in the Auckland CBD among three discrete population samples:- 820 random householders; 209 senior college students and 117 international tertiary students.

Finally, the authors discuss the implications of the survey results for the various joint police/council initiatives to improve CBD safety and make a number of suggestions for actions which might impact positively on future perceptions of safety in the Auckland CBD.

Investigative Interviewing - The Literature

Year: 2005

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

This review provides an overview of investigative interviewing within policing. It may also be of interest to anyone who uses this type of interviewing on the job including insurance fraud investigators, lawyers, and government departments.

The review outlines the efforts made by police and psychologists in recent decades to: convey the importance of investigative interviewing; understand what happens in an investigative Interview; use psychological theories and research to find out what makes a successful interview; examine the effectiveness of various skills and Techniques; find a basic framework and rationale to underlie investigative interviews; and to produce guidelines on how to conduct interviews.

Communications Centres Service Centre Independent External Review - Final Report

Year: 2005

Agency: NZ Police

Author: New South Wales PoliceToronto Police ServiceNorth Wales PolicePricewaterhouse Coopers Ltd

The operational effectiveness and efficiency of the New Zealand Police Communications Centres Service Centre (CCSC) have been questioned following a number of high profile incidents. As a result of incidents in late 2004, the Commissioner of Police decided to assemble an independent, external Review Panel.

The Panel was composed of senior police communications experts from Australia, Wales and Canada, and an organisational psychologist from New Zealand. The Panel was directed to make recommendations to ensure the CCSC continues to meet public, staff and Police expectations for public and staff safety, public confidence, and policing effectiveness.

Young People and Alcohol: Some Statistics to 2002 on Possible Effects of Lowering the Drinking Age

Year: 2004

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Barb Lash

This report (the third in a series) presents some statistics on the possible effects of the Sale of Liquor Amendment Act 1999, and focuses on the lowering of the drinking age.

The Sentencing Act 2002: Monitoring the First Year

Year: 2004

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Rajesh Chhana, Philip Spier, Susan Roberts, Chris Hurd

This report considers the impact that the Sentencing Act 2002 ("the Act") had on sentencing practice during the 12 months following it coming into force, in terms of the key changes that were made to sentencing policy. The report draws on an extensive review of judgments delivered by the courts at all levels and an analysis of statistics on a before and after basis.

Alternative Dispute Resolution: General Civil Cases

Year: 2004

Agency: Centre for Research Evaluation and Social Assessment (CRESA)

Author: Kay Saville-Smith and Ruth Fraser

A research programme was established to explore Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in the course of the case management process for the District Court and High Court jurisdictions. This report is an attempt to integrate the separate reports on the findings of each of the research projects focusing on the experiences of each of the stakeholder groups.

Evaluation of the Target Hardening Pilot Programme

Year: 2004

Agency: Institute of Public Policy Auckland University of Technology and Ministry of Justice

Author: Cathy Casey, Bhavani PaulRaj, Susie Jacka and Tanya Segessenmann

In April 2001, a pilot of the Target Hardening Programme began operating in seven Auckland Victim Support areas. The objectives of the Programme were to prevent repeat burglary victimisation of lower socio-economic households and increase victims' sense of security by "hardening" or increasing the security of households that are burglary targets.

Youth Justice Minimum Dataset: Data Integration Pilot

Year: 2004

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Philip Spier and Tanya Segessenmann

A feasibility pilot was undertaken to document the range and quality of youth justice information collected electronically by New Zealand Police and the Department of Child, Youth and Family (the two core agencies in relation to youth justice). Also assessed was the degree to which the data between the agencies could be integrated for individuals who had a police-referred youth justice Family Group Conference.

Status Hearings Evaluation: A New Zealand Study of Pre-Trial Hearings in Criminal Cases

Year: 2004

Agency: Ministry of Justice and Law Commission

Author: Wendy Searle, Tania Slater, Trish Knaggs, Janet November, Christopher Clark

This report presents the findings of an evaluation of status hearings which were piloted in the Auckland District Court in October 1995 and are now operating in most district courts throughout New Zealand. Status hearings aredesigned to improve the criminal justice system by ensuring defendants enter an informed plea to appropriate charges as soon as possible and so reduce last minute cancellations of trials and all the consequent problems.

Process Evaluation of the Christchurch Youth Drug Pilot

Year: 2004

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Carswell

Alcohol and drug abuse are often significant factors in youth offending. The aim of the Youth Drug Court Pilot has been to facilitate better service delivery to young people with alcohol and drug dependency in order to reduce their offending.

The Socio-Economic Impact of Amphetamine Type Stimulants in New Zealand

Year: 2004

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Massey University

This report presents the findings of research on the socio-economic impact of Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS) in New Zealand. ATS are a group of synthetic illicit drug types which include methamphetamine, ecstasy and crystal methamphetamine (known as ‘ice’). The work presented draws on a number of innovative research approaches and methodologies, many of which were tried for the first time in New Zealand during the project. 

The central aim of the research was to inform the policy response, best practice and strategic planning by New Zealand Police and other relevant government agencies with regard to the recent rise in the use and manufacture of ATS drugs. However because many agencies other than the Police deal with drug problems, the findings reported here have relevance for any organisations responding to ATS problems. 

Communication Service Centre Customer Satisfaction Survey 2003-2004

Year: 2004

Agency: NZ Police

Author: ACNeilson

The Communications Centre Service (CCS), also known as “Comms” within the New Zealand Police, receive all 111 calls and other calls which are routed to the police. Comms logs jobs and events, entering details as provided by the caller, to assist the officers who are despatched to the scene.

New Zealand Police has contracted ACNielsen to conduct a customer satisfaction survey of recent callers to the three Communication Centres (Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch) administered by the CCS. Results from the survey will be used to determine satisfaction with the service performance of the CCS and to inform service improvements.

The broad objectives of this research are two-fold:  to ascertain the level of satisfaction from the public of the service provided by the Communication Centres, for internal analysis and identification of improvements; and to fulfil a parliamentary performance measurement, whereby the level of satisfaction of external callers is recorded in the NZ Police annual Statement of Intent.

Recent Changes in the Methamphetamine Scene in New Zealand

Year: 2004

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Massey UniversityNZ PoliceUniversity of Otago

This document presents preliminary findings from key informant surveys of drug enforcement and drug treatment workers about how the methamphetamine scene in New Zealand has changed in the last six months.

It is the first component of a larger study of the socio-economic impact of Amphetamine type Stimulants (ATS) commissioned by the New Zealand Police. The ATS project is funded by the New Zealand Police from money received from the Cross Departmental Research Funding Pool administered by the Ministry of Research Science and Technology (MoRST).

Drawing on the Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) methodology key informant surveys were conducted nationwide with drug treatment workers and drug enforcement officers from Police and Customs in November and December of 2003. Drug enforcement key informants were selected by the National Drug Intelligence Bureau (NDIB) from officers with good knowledge of drug offending from all areas of the country.

A Risk-Need Profile Using Four Measures for Youth Offenders Incarcerated in Young Offender Units

Year: 2004

Agency: Corrections

Author: Corrections

This is the first research that has sought to gather information on a New Zealand incarcerated youth offender population from actuarial measures containing both static and dynamic risk factors. This was designed to allow the Department to develop a risk-need profile of youth offenders within the Young Offender Units (YOU) to enable targeted intervention to be developed. Youth offenders in the Hawkes Bay, Waikeria, and Christchurch YOU’s were administered a structured interview that allowed three specific risk measures to be scored from this information and analysed along with RoC*RoI scores for the group and offence related variables.

Youth Court Offending Rates

Year: 2003

Agency: Crime and Justice Research Centre Victoria University

Author: Gabrielle Maxwell and Elisabeth Poppelwell

Comparisons of offending by young people over time and across areas has been bedevilled by the lack of appropriate statistics. Recent changes to recording systems have now made it possible to use data on Youth Court appearances to compare rates of offending over time and by sex, ethnicity and area. This report describes a methodology for making these comparisons and sets out the relevant data from 1988 to 2001.

Trends in the use of Bail and Offending while on Bail 1990-1999

Year: 2003

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Barb Lash

Information on offending on bail is for 1999. In these statistics, an offence committed while on bail is defined as a conviction for an offence committed while on bail. Some court proceedings for offences committed while on bail were not finalised until two years after the offence was committed. To allow for this, convictions for the two years after 1999 (2000 and 2001) were included in the measurement of offending on bail for 1999. Data on offending on bail from 1990 to 1992 is included in the report so that trends over a ten year period can be analysed.

The New Zealand National Survey of Crime Victims 2001

Year: 2003

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Allison Morris, James Reilly, Sheila Berry and Robin Ransom

This Report presents the findings of the second New Zealand National Survey of Crime Victims (NZNSCV) which was conducted in 2001. A random sample of the population aged 15 and over was interviewed. In addition, there were two 'booster' samples of M_ori and Pacific peoples respectively. The 2001 NZNSCV focused on offences where the participant had personally been a victim (examples of these are sexual victimisation, assault, robbery, theft from the person, general theft and wilful damage), and where all members of the household could be regarded as victims and so the participant answered on behalf of the whole household (examples of these are burglary, theft from inside or outside a dwelling, theft of or from motor vehicles and interference with motor vehicles). Participants were asked not only about the extent to which they had been the victims of these offences since 1 January 2000, but also about the circumstances and impact of those offences and their response to them as well as a range of other crime-related information.

The Needs of Pacific Peoples when they are Victims of Crime

Year: 2003

Agency: Koloto & Associates Limited

This report presents and discusses the findings of a qualitative study of the needs of Pacific peoples who have been victims of three types of crime: Violence, Family Violence and Property Offences. The study, which was commissioned by the Ministry of Justice with support from the Health Research Council, was designed to provide qualitative information to complement the quantitative information provided by the second New Zealand National Survey of Crime Victims 2001.

Talking about Sentences and Crime: The views of people on periodic detention

Year: 2003

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Wendy Searle, Trish Knaggs and Kiri Simonsen

This study presents the findings from the first comprehensive New Zealand survey to ask people sentenced to periodic detention their views on sentencing and crime. The research assesses detainees' perceptions of sentencing practice and their knowledge of key facts, such as the level of violent crime, and the number of people offending while on bail. The research also explores offenders' perceptions of the relative severity of a range of sentences and the sentences they have experienced. The research was undertaken prior to major sentencing reform in New Zealand, with the sentencing framework as set out in the Criminal Justice Act 1985 replaced by provisions of the Sentencing Act 2002. Significant changes to community-based sentences were enacted, effectively involving a merger of periodic detention with community service in a new sentence called Community Work.

Characteristics Associated with the Early Identification of Complex Family Court Custody Cases

Year: 2003

Author: Helena Barwick, Alison Gray, Roger Macky

The Family Court deals with a proportion of complex custody cases which are of long duration and involve a lot of interaction with the Family Court. The Department for Courts has commissioned this research to investigate whether these complex Family Court custody cases can be identified early through particular characteristics or criteria. The research, which was qualitative in design, gathered data through interviews and group discussions with individuals. It focused on characteristics or criteria that the Court can be expected to have or to obtain information about. Informants for this report include Family Court Judges, Court staff, CYF lawyers, family law practitioners, and specialist report writers. The research also included a brief a literature review.

A Statistical View of Guardianship Act Cases

Year: 2003

Agency: Department for Courts

Author: Department for Courts

The purpose of this report is to provide some statistics about cases brought under the Guardianship Act 1968, and the judicially ordered costs and hearings arising from these cases.

Research into the New Life Akoranga Programme of the Mahi Tahi Trust

Year: 2003

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Nan Wehipeihana, Laurie Porima with Philip Spier

The New Life Akoranga Programme works with inmates helping them to discover and recover traditional Maori principles, values and disciplines. Two types of research were undertaken. The first aimed to document how far the programme achieved its aims. The second type of research aimed to examine the programme's impact on participants' subsequent offending behaviour.

Attitudes to Crime and Punishment: A New Zealand Study

Year: 2003

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Judy Paulin, Wendy Searle and Trish Knaggs

This report presents the findings from the first comprehensive national survey of the views of a sample of New Zealanders about crime and the criminal justice system's response to crime.

Evaluation of Programmes for Children under the Domestic Violence Act 1995

Year: 2002

Agency: International Research Institute for Maori and Indigenous Education University of Auckland and Centre for Child and Family Policy Research University of Auckland

Author: Tania Cargo, Fiona Cram, Robyn Dixon, Deborah Widdowson, Vivienne Adair and Sue Jackson

This evaluation of programmes for children took a comprehensive approach, incorporating aspects of both process and outcome evaluation. Documentation and qualitative analysis of the ways in which programmes for children under the Domestic Violence Act 1995 operated in practice are included. The impact of programmes on the lives of the participants interviewed is discussed.

The Domestic Violence 1995 Act 42 day ‘rules’, and the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989 60 day ‘rule’

Year: 2002

Agency: Department of Courts

Author: Helena Barwick and Alison Gray

Details: http://www.justice.govt.nz/courts/family-court/documents/publications/42-day-rules-young-persons.pdf

The Department for Courts commissioned research to investigate the reasons why the 42 day 'rule' in the Domestic Violence Act 1995 (DVA) and the 60 day 'rule' in the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989 (CYPFA) are not always met in the Family Court.

Sections 22, 36, 46, 47, 55, 59, 65, 69 and 76 of the DVA provide that, where a respondent to an application wants to be heard in relation to that application, unless there are special circumstances, a hearing date should be assigned no later than 42 days after receipt of the respondent's notice.

Section 200 of CYPFA requires that an application under section 67 of the Act shall, unless there are special circumstances, be heard not later than 60 days after the application is filed in the court.

Delays in hearings can affect both the interim situation and outcomes for respondents and their children in the case of the DVA and the outcomes for children and their families in the case of CYPFA. It is also a questionable use of resources for courts to be endeavouring to meet what are often considered to be unrealistic time frames.

This study explores the reasons why these time frames are not always being met. The findings will inform decisions as to whether changes in Family Court procedure might lead to improved levels of compliance, or whether the time frames themselves are impracticable in some circumstances.

Reconviction And Reimprisonment Rates For Released Prisoners

Year: 2002

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Philip Spier

This paper presents information on the prior and post conviction histories of the 22,340 inmates released from prison between 1995 and 1998.

Evaluation of Programmes for Maori Adult Protected Persons Under the Domestic Violence Act 1995

Year: 2002

Agency: International Research Institute for Maori and Indigenous Education University of Auckland

Author: Fiona Cram, Leonie Pihame, Kuni Jenkins, Matewiki Karehana

This is the final report in a series of evaluations commissioned by the Ministry of Justice and Department for Courts to examine the impact of the Domestic Violence Act 1995. These evaluations, together and separately, serve to inform us of the effectiveness of the Act. Overall, the evaluations report that the programmes are important and provide benefits for protected persons, children and respondents and that there is support for the legislative framework. This report not only examines the legislative environment for delivering programmes to Maori women, it also looks more broadly at defining Maori domestic violence, and the impacts of colonisation and violence on indigenous communities. Two programmes delivered by Maori providers for Maori Adult Protected Persons are evaluated in this report. Both used Kaupapa Maori as a basis to explore a political, social and cultural analysis of domestic violence within the context of their programmes. Both programmes involved in the evaluation continued to grow and develop in line with their visions of how best to serve their communities and confront issues of domestic violence.

Young People And Alcohol: Some Statistics On Possible Effects Of Lowering The Drinking Age

Year: 2002

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Barb Lash

This report presents some statistics on the possible effects of the Sale of Liquor Amendment Act 1999, and focuses on the lowering of the drinking age. The statistics presented are mostly limited to those statistics routinely collected on a national basis for various purposes. The statistics presented do not explicitly measure the impact of lowering the minimum legal drinking age, rather, they are indicators of the possible impact of lowering the drinking age. Changes in indicator levels over time may be due to other factors, such as changes in Police practices or recording practices. At best, statistical information was available for two years following the law change. For these reasons, these statistics represent only a partial picture of the likely impact of lowering the drinking age. The first version of this report was published in 2002 (Lash 2002). This report updates the earlier report with new information and the inclusion of another year of data.

Guardianship, Custody and Access: Maori Perspectives and Experiences

Year: 2002

Agency: Strategic Training and Development Services

Author: Di Pitama, George Ririnui, and Ani Mikaere

This research contributes to the review of the Guardianship Act 1968. The objective of the research was to provide information on the experiences of Maori whanau and individuals when they engage with the Family Courts over matters of guardianship, custody and access. The research involved a small number of kanohi ki te kanohi (face-to-face) interviews with whanau who have been involved in guardianship proceedings. It also included interviews with legal counsel and social service providers involved in the Family Courts. From these interviews valuable insights are gained about the impact of the guardianship, custody and access arrangements on Maori whanau. The literature review provides a broader context for the individual perspectives recorded in the research by identifying key principles underlying Maori child raising. The report identifies key principles that could be further explored for better recognising Maori perspectives on guardianship, custody and access, and facilitating more effective Maori participation in Family Court proceedings. This research provides useful input into the development of policy to better meet the needs of Maori involved in guardianship proceedings and, more broadly, Maori users of the Family Courts.

Seven New Police Youth Development Programmes 2002

Year: 2002

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

This report is a product of both the formative and process evaluation phases of the seven Youth Development Programmes. Following the perceived success of 14 original Police Youth at Risk programmes, the 2000/01 Police budget included funding for the establishment of five new Youth Development Programmes. In addition, the Police and the Crime Prevention Unit (CPU) jointly funded a further two programmes.

Firstly, a brief methodology describes the processes by which the information in this report was collected. The body of the report comprises of a programme description for each of the seven programmes describing the development of the programme and the consultation that took place in the formative phase, as well as describing programme operation for the first year of the process evaluation. 

As indicated within each description, the information within the report is based on that provided by programme staff and in some cases, initial proposal documentation. These descriptions will form the basis for the aforementioned process evaluation analysis documents.

Outcome Evaluation of Police Youth at Risk Programmes - July 1997 to June 2000

Year: 2002

Agency: NZ Police

Author: NZ Police

The Government’s 1994 crime prevention strategy identified seven goals, one of which specified the establishment of preventative programmes targeted at “youth at risk” of offending. As a result, the 1997 Crime Prevention Youth at Risk (CPYAR) package, dedicated to the three fiscal years beginning July 1997, invested $8.7 million in Youth at Risk strategies, with funding allocated to 14 programmes throughout New Zealand.

This outcome evaluation of the 14 Police Youth at Risk programmes is based on data from the period July 1997 to June 2000, and aims to assess the extent to which each programme met the Police objectives, and overall effectiveness of each programme.

Recidivism Patterns for People Convicted in 1995

Year: 2001

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Philip Spier

This research summarises some of the information available on the prior and post offending histories of the 104,920 people with a convicted case in 1995. Information is provided for all offenders convicted in 1995, then for violent offenders and burglars, as there is particular interest in these two groups of offenders. A database has been established with the offending histories of all people convicted in 1995. Both criminal (non-traffic) and traffic conviction histories were extracted from the Law Enforcement System. A complete history of each person

Women Living Without Violence: An evaluation of programmes for adult protected persons under the Domestic Violence Act 1995

Year: 2001

Agency: Institute of Criminology Victoria University

Author: Gabrielle Maxwell, Tracy Anderson and Teresea Olsen

This is a process and outcome evaluation of two programmes for adult protected persons provided under the Domestic Violence Act 1995. The principal aim of the evaluation was to establish:

Survey On Public Attitudes Towards The Physical Discipline Of Children

Year: 2001

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Carswell

The survey was conducted by the Ministry of Justice to ascertain public attitudes towards the physical discipline of children. This information is to inform ongoing policy work on section 59 of the Crimes Act 1961. Section 59 provides a defence to parents charged with assault against their children. Under section 59, every parent of a child (and every person in the place of the parent of a child) is justified in using force by way of correction towards the child, if the force used is reasonable in the circumstances.

The Age of Physical Abuse Victims And The Sentence Imposed On Their Abusers

Year: 2001

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Christopher Clark

There is disquiet among some members of the public who perceive that offenders who abuse children are given lighter sentences than offenders who abuse adults. Their concerns were brought to the fore in October 2000 when a woman was sentenced to four months imprisonment for dousing her ten-year-old foster son in petrol and accidentally setting him alight. Ministry of Justice researchers undertook a small project to compare the sentences imposed on offenders charged with physical assault with reference to the age of their victims. The research is based on data extracted from the Law Enforcement System (LES) and from court files for charges involving physical (non-sexual) assaults that were finalised in 1999.

Domestic Violence Act 1995: Process Evaluation

Year: 2000

Agency: Gray Matter Research Ltd

Author: Helena Barwick, Alison Gray and Roger Macky

Data gathered for the evaluation, included statistics on applications; a study of 335 court files of applications; a national survey of all Family Court Judges, all Family Court Coordinators and a sample of lawyers doing Family Court work; interviews with judges, court staff, lawyers, police, private document servers, programme providers and community groups in four sites; interviews with applicants and respondents under the Act; interviews with those who have been victims of domestic violence but have not applied for a protection order; case studies of best practice in different aspects of the implementation of the Act.

Speaking about Cultural Background at Sentencing: Section 16 of the Criminal Justice Act 1985

Year: 2000

Agency: Ministry of Justice, Strategic Training and Development Services and The Family Centre Social Policy Research Unit

Author: Alison Chetwin, Tony Waldegrave, Kiri Simonsen, Strategic Training and Development Services and The Family Centre Social Policy Research Unit

Section 16 of the Criminal Justice Act 1995 allows an offender’s supporter to present information at sentencing about an offender’s ethnic or cultural background, the way that may relate to the offending, and the way that may help in avoiding future offending.

This research has investigated the purposes of section 16, the use and the effects of using section 16, and possible reasons for a lack of use. The study has also sought to identify any improvements that could be made to the legislation, or to the way the legislation is implemented.

The research draws information from eleven case studies of situations in which section 16 has been used. Six of these case studies involved offenders who were Maori, three involved offenders who were Pacific People, one involved a Japanese offender and one a New Zealand European offender. Further information was gathered from a national postal survey of judges, lawyers, Community Probation Service staff, and community organisations.

Challenging Perspectives - Police and Maori Attitudes Toward One Another

Year: 2000

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Victoria Link Ltd

In 1997 NZ Police and Te Puni Kōkiri commissioned research from Victoria Link on Perceptions of Maori and Police. This research comprised two complimentary but separate components. 

The first, Maori Perceptions of the Police by Pania Te Whaiti and Michel Roguski from He Parekerekere, sought information on Maori attitudes towards the police; and the second, Police Perceptions of Maori by Gabrielle Maxwell and Catherine Smith from the Institute of Criminology, examined police views about their behaviour and attitudes toward Maori. 

This summary document provides an overview of the two research reports. However, the document is not intended to be a substituted for reading the two reports. This document is necessarily brief and selective in the information it presents, and consequently a full understanding of the issues can only be obtained by reference to the research reports themselves.

This document outlines who was involved in the research, how it was done, and the main findings. Section 2 explains the background to the research, and section 3 provides a general introduction to the two studies. This is followed by more detailed discussion of each study in sections 4 and 5. The final section focuses on policy implications of the research.

The Domestic Violence Legislation and Child Access in New Zealand

Year: 1999

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Alison Chetwin, Trish Knaggs and Patricia Te Wairere Ahiahi Young

This research study was designed to assess the implementation and impacts of the new provisions in the Domestic Violence Act 1995 and an amendment to the Guardianship Act 1968 in relation to the arrangements made for access to children. In 1997, a study of 558 files from five Family Courts was completed. The cases selected were applications for Protection Orders in which children were involved and applications for custody in which there were allegations of violence. Fifty three key informants were interviewed, including providers of supervised access services, programme providers, court staff, lawyers, and judges. In 1998, interviews were conducted with 82 custodial and non-custodial parents and five people who had supervised access informally.

Sentencing in New Zealand: A Statistical Analysis

Year: 1999

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Triggs

The aim of this research was to quantify the relative effect of various statistical factors on current and past sentencing practice in New Zealand. A particular objective was to identify factors influencing the use of community-based sentences, including the extent to which community-based sentences are being used as an alternative to imprisonment and the extent of changes in sentencing practice that have accompanied the very significant increase in the use of community-based sentences over the last decade and a half.

From Crime to Sentence: Trends in Criminal Justice, 1986 to 1996

Year: 1998

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Triggs

The aim of this publication is to bring together statistics on enforcement, prosecution, sentencing and correctional populations to give an integrated picture of the criminal justice system. As the development of criminal justice policy requires information not only on the current make-up of the system, but also on how the system functions over time and responds to change, this report examines trends from 1986 to 1996 in the volume and type of the offences and offenders at each stage of the system and in the system as a whole. To achieve this a computerised statistical model of the criminal justice system was developed. The model is also being used to forecast future trends and to estimate the potential impacts of proposed policy changes.

Those on Bail in New Zealand in 1994 and their Offending

Year: 1998

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Barb Lash

This report provides information on the characteristics of people remanded on bail. The extent of offending while on bail and the nature of such offending is analysed. The report also compares cases in four categories: those remanded on bail throughout the case, those remanded on bail for some of the case and remanded in custody for some of the case, those remanded in custody throughout the case, and those not remanded on bail or in custody at any stage of the case. The cases analysed in this report were all those finalised in 1994 where the first and last court appearance were not on the same day.

Maori Perceptions of the Police - 1998

Year: 1998

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Victoria Link Ltd

New Zealand Police, in collaboration with Te Puni Kokiri, sponsored this research project with the aim of providing information to enable organizational change in the Police. This organizational change would contribute towards an improved perception by Maori of the police.

The research begins by explaining the research methodology and the history of police interaction with Maori. This is followed by the results which are then broken down into four key areas; suspects, victims of crime, Maori youth, and complaints against police. The report moves to discuss “What Works Best” concerning participants’ perceptions of current police relationships with iwi and Maori communities and how these relationships may be improved. Finally the report concludes with a summary of findings.

This report forms one of two specific components of the project ‘Perceptions of Maori and Police’. The two components have been researched independently of each other. This volume, ‘Maori Perceptions of the Police’, was researched and written by Pania Te Whaiti and Dr Michael Roguski at the School of Education, Victoria University. The other volume, ‘Police Perceptions of Maori’, was researched and written by the Institute of Criminology, Victoria University.

Police Perceptions of the Maori - 1998

Year: 1998

Agency: NZ Police

Author: Victoria Link Ltd

New Zealand Police, in collaboration with Te Puni Kokiri, sponsored this research project which aims to examine police how police view their behaviour and attitudes toward Maori, to look at factors associated with different attitudes among police officers and to assess likely responses to proposed changes for building responsiveness to Maori planned as part of Policing 2000.

This report forms one of two specific components of the project ‘Perceptions of Maori and Police’. The two components have been researched independently of each other. This volume, ‘Police Perceptions of Maori’, was researched and written by Garbielle Maxwell and Catherine Smith, Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington. The other volume, ‘Maori Perceptions of Police’, was researched and written by Pania Te Whaiti and Dr Michael Roguski at the School of Education, Victoria University.

A Summary of the Crime Victims and Women's Safety Survey

Year: 1997

Agency: Victimisation Survey Committee

Author: Allison Morris

The National Survey of Crime Victims explored the experience of victimisation of 5000 randomly selected New Zealanders. The Women's Safety Survey aimed more specifically to explore violence against women by their male partners. Thus women who had already participated in the National Survey of Crime Victims and who were currently living with a male partner (referred to in the text as women with current partners), or who had been living with a male partner within the last two years but were not now (referred to in the text as women with recent partners), were invited to participate. The principal objectives of the Women's Safety Survey were: to provide an alternative measure to police statistics of the extent of violence against women by their partners; to provide an alternative measure to the National Survey of Crime Victims of the extent of violence against women by their partners; to describe the context and circumstances of violence against women by their partners; to describe the consequences and effects of violence by women's partners on women and their children; and to identify the people and agencies women who experience violence by their partners talk to or approach for help and describe the women's assessment of that help.

New Zealand National Survey of Crime Victims 1996

Year: 1997

Agency: Victimisaiton Survey Committee

Author: Warren Young, Allison Morris, Neil Cameron, Stephen Haslett

The 1996 New Zealand National Survey of Crime Victims is the first stand-alone national general victimisation survey to be conducted in this country. The major purpose of victimisation surveys is to establish whether respondents or their households have been the victims of any of a range of offences over a specified period of time. The survey was commissioned and funded by the New Zealand Police, the Ministry of Justice, the Crime Prevention Unit of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, the Department of Social Welfare, Te Puni Kokiri, the Ministry of Women's Affairs and the Ministry of Youth Affairs. The survey was commissioned because there was a clear need for improved measures of the incidence and prevalence of victimisation in New Zealand. There was also a need for more information about the effects of, and responses to, victimisation. The survey provides valuable base-line data on which it is hoped to build by conducting subsequent surveys.

Interpreting Trends in Recorded Crime in New Zealand

Year: 1997

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Sue Triggs

This research is the first stage of a Ministry of Justice project to develop a statistical model of the criminal justice system. As recorded crime is a major factor determining the volume of work in the criminal justice system, an understanding of the factors that influence the growth of recorded crime is fundamental to the development of the model. The first part of this report examines the factors that influence fluctuations in aggregate levels of recorded crime in New Zealand. Multiple regression techniques were used to determine which social, economic, demographic and justice factors were statistically associated with changes in the annual growth rate of recorded crime rates over the 1962-95 time period. The second part of this report presents forecasts of crime rates using the results of the regression models, as well as time-series and judgement techniques. This chapter also discusses the potential impact on crime rates of factors that could not be statistically evaluated.

Home Detention: The Evaluation of the Home Detention Pilot Programme

Year: 1997

Agency: Ministry of Justice

Author: Alison Church and Stephen Dunstan

The New Zealand home detention pilot aims to ease the transition from prison to the community of inmates who would otherwise have remained in prison. The pilot was conducted in Auckland over a two year period from April 1995. During the pilot detainees were monitored by an electronic system and supervised by three specially designated probation officers. An evaluation was needed to assess the effectiveness of the pilot, to assess the impact of home detention, and to inform a decision about its possible extension to other districts. The evaluation drew on information from interviews with detainees and their families, case records, the Law Enforcement System (formerly the Wanganui Computer), diaries kept by home detention officers, observation, expenditure records, and interviews with a range of key informants.